Direitos Humanos na cidade sem limites: quais são as demandas em pauta?​

Violência e desigualdade são os problemas apontados pelos órgãos que atuam nesse tema em Bauru

Publicado em 10 de dezembro de 2019

No #15M, manifestação em Bauru contra os cortes na Educação, anunciados pelo Governo Bolsonaro. A data foi de Greve Nacional da Educação (Foto: Patrícia Domingos/Jornal Dois)
Por Ana Carolina Moraes

Direitos Humanos são um conjunto de direitos garantidos a todas as pessoas – independente de gênero, sexualidade, cor ou classe social. Elaborada em 1948 pela ONU, a Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos inclui o direito à vida e à liberdade, à liberdade de opinião e de expressão, o direito ao trabalho e à educação, entre e muitos outros. Todos merecem estes direitos, sem discriminação.

As abordagens sobre Direitos Humanos tendem a ser otimistas porque, na teoria, as garantias são para todas as pessoas. Na prática, no entanto, o que se observa é que, desde que os Direitos Humanos foram criados, parte da sociedade pôde e tem usufruído deles. O Brasil, por exemplo, é o país que mais mata negros – foram 49,5 mil homicídios de pessoas negras em 2017, segundo dados do Atlas da Violência. É também o país onde, a cada 23 horas, ocorre uma morte por homofobia, de acordo com levantamento do Grupo Gay Bahia; onde 60 mil casos de violência sexual contra mulheres foram registrados no ano passado.

Quando nos fixamos em Bauru, o destaque é a desigualdade. Cerca de 1/3 da população é pobre e mora nas periferias da cidade, conforme o Plano Diretor de 2008. Além disso, tem também os casos de violência policial, como o do caso da morte de André Eduardo Alves da Costa, o Dudu, e a abordagem da Polícia Militar no Bloquinho Pé de Cachaça, em fevereiro deste ano. Neste cenário, como fica a questão dos direitos humanos?

 Contraditório

Desde 2010, Bauru conta com um Plano Municipal de Direitos Humanos, que reúne orientações para “construção de uma cidade socialmente justa, humana e solidária para todos”. O plano foi atualizado em 2016, ganhando novos contornos para abordar reivindicações específicas dos direitos da juventude, da população negra, das mulheres, da comunidade LGBTI+, dentre outros. 

 Apesar de quase uma década com este documento, as ações e políticas públicas para o enfrentamento às violações de Direitos Humanos são escassas no município. A cidade conta apenas com duas leis específicas sobre a temática – uma sobre a formação do Conselho Municipal dos Direitos Humanos (2011) e outra sobre a Semana Municipal dos Direitos Humanos (2018)

 Na prática mesmo, o que se tem são que recebem denúncias e tentam intervir nos casos em busca de uma solução. Um deles é a Comissão de Direitos Humanos da Câmara Municipal, presidida pelo vereador Sandro Bussola (PDT).  “A Comissão atua quando tem conhecimento de algum fato importante referente às violações dos Direitos Humanos”, explica Bussola. “Além disso, também recebe qualquer munícipe interessado em apresentar denúncias ou pedidos de apuração”.

 Já o Conselho Municipal de Direitos Humanos tem objetivo de promover e defender os direitos da pessoa humana, investigar as violações de direitos humanos e encaminhar essas denúncias para as autoridades responsáveis. “A função [do Conselho] é estar atenta às questões relativas aos direitos humanos, acatar e solucionar as denúncias recebidas e propor ações – tanto para o poder público quanto para a sociedade –, além de disseminar e discutir o que são os direitos humanos com a população”, pontua a Presidente do Conselho, Kátia Valeria dos Santos Souza. 

Para ela, as principais demandas na pauta de direitos humanos estão relacionadas ao racismo, abordagem violenta da polícia e agressões às mulheres. “O que a gente tenta fazer é o seguinte: como o Conselho de Direitos Humanos abrange todos os outros direitos, a gente tem conversado com os outros Conselhos para uma ação articulada. […] O que a gente quer é uma ação mais célere nas denúncias, mobilizando os conselhos envolvidos.”

De acordo com Bussola, um dos enfrentamentos de Bauru com relação aos direitos humanos é a população em situação de rua. “O problema não se restringe apenas às pessoas que estão em situação de Rua, mas atendemos muitos familiares que nos procuram para ajuda, em ambos os casos buscamos juntos a SEBES com Centro POP uma solução”, comenta. O presidente da Comissão também coloca a violência – contra criança e adolescente, mulheres e idosos -, o acesso à moradia e vulnerabilidade social.

Diálogo

Tanto para o Conselho Municipal quanto para a Comissão de Direitos Humanos, o esforço é dialogar com a comunidade bauruense. Sandro Bussola, presidente da Comissão da Câmara, afirma que a importância é “proporcionar equidade nos direitos a todos munícipes, que podem recorrer à comissão sempre que necessário”.

“Nosso foco hoje é ter contato com a população”, apresenta Kátia Souza, presidente do Conselho Municipal de Direitos Humanos. Para isso, o Conselho elaborou um Projeto de Lei para instituir a Semana Bauruense de Direitos Humanos, um evento pautado pelo debate sobre direitos humanos com a cidade. 

O projeto foi aprovado e a primeira edição ocorre de 9 a 15 de dezembro desde ano. A Semana Bauruense de Direitos Humanos articula uma série de atividades que pautam os direitos humanos em palestras, exposições e oficinas de formação – tudo de graça e aberto à comunidade. A programação completa está no site do evento.

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