A Revolução Curda: Socialismo, Feminismo e Ecologia Social no Século XXI

Agora, nesse momento, tem uma Revolução Socialista acontecendo na Ásia, mais especificamente no Oriente Médio. Dezenas de milhões de pessoas estão envolvidas, mas apesar disso, pouco se fala sobre ela.

Publicado em 24 de outubro de 2019

Revolução de Rojava, protagonizada por mulheres (Foto: xilogravura da @revistacomando)
Por Arthur Castro, colunista do Jornal Dois

No texto de hoje, pretendo jogar luz sobre um dos maiores acontecimentos da atualidade e que, mesmo estando diariamente nos noticiários, é pouco falado e aprofundado mesmo no meio progressista e de esquerda.

Quem são os Curdos?

O povo curdo é uma etnia que existe há milênios e está espalhado ao longo de quatro países: Turquia, Iraque, Síria e Irã. O seu sonho é a construção de um país próprio, o Curdistão, o que é brutalmente combatido por todos esses governos da região, negando o direito à sua própria língua e cultura.

No Iraque, de maioria árabe, a população curda foi vítima de uma tentativa de limpeza étnica liderada por Saddam Hussein, membro do Partido Baath¹, que chegou a utilizar armas químicas contra civis. Após a queda do governo, o Curdistão iraquiano recebeu uma relativa independência, sendo governado pela família Barzani, uma burguesia alinhada ao liberalismo, ao imperialismo ocidental e à Israel. Por outro lado, no Irã (de etnia persa), todas as organizações curdas são proibidas. O país vive uma ditadura religiosa e fundamentalista controlada pelo clero xiita², que reprime com violência as lutas por autonomia. Todos os anos, militantes curdos são condenados à pena de morte.

Na Turquia é onde se encontra grande parte da comunidade curda, alinhada à partidos de esquerda. O Partido dos Trabalhadores do Curdistão (PKK) era uma organização stalinista que combatia, por meio de terrorismo e guerrilha, pela construção de um Curdistão socialista, até que Abdullah Öcalan, seu líder, foi preso em uma operação da CIA. Na prisão, teve acesso aos escritos de Murray Bookchin e se inspirando em suas ideias, desenvolveu o Confederalismo Democrático.

O Confederalismo Democrático

Murray Bookchin foi um anarquista norte-americano que desenvolveu diversas ideias no campo socialista. Uma delas foi defendida em sua obra “Ecologia Social”, na qual afirmava a importância do ambientalismo para a esquerda; outra foi o “Municipalismo Libertário”, que significava a mudança da luta de classes do sindicato para os bairros³.

Öcalan, tendo acesso a essas propostas, construiu sua própria: combinou os escritos de Bookchin com outros elementos, produzindo um programa político inovador conhecido como Confederalismo Democrático. Essa proposta incluía a organização de assembleias e conselhos populares, por democracia direta, que funcionariam de baixo para cima com delegações controladas pelas bases.

Também entendia que a busca pela conquista do Estado não seria positiva, pois promoveria um nacionalismo étnico e militarista, e defendeu que o povo curdo construísse organismos políticos independentes e alternativos com cotas de participação para as diversas etnias. Öcalan também viu no patriarcado um grande problema, e o feminismo passou a ter um local de destaque, colocando a mulher como protagonista da libertação social e coletiva.

Gradualmente, o PKK rejeitou a linha pró-soviética e aderiu ao novo modelo. Apesar de em 2012 terem apresentado uma oficina no Encontro Anarquista de Saint-Imier, Suíça, nunca se afirmaram anarquistas, por considerarem que sua ideologia possui diversas inspirações, incluindo o marxismo.

A Guerra Civil Síria e a Revolução

Em 2011, manifestações explodiram no Norte da África e no Oriente Médio, e foram conhecidas como Primavera Árabe. Na Síria, o governo de Bashar Al Assad, do Partido Baath, reprimiu com extrema violência; a situação se radicalizou e o país mergulhou em uma guerra civil.

O governo Assad é nacionalista e muçulmano xiita, e conta com apoio do Irã, da Rússia e da China. Acusado pelo uso de armas químicas, por bombardear civis e pela prisão indiscriminada de opositores. Uma das cenas mais chocantes foi um vídeo mostrando crianças vítimas de gases lançados pelos soldados.

A oposição, os rebeldes sírios, são formados por uma diversidade de milícias armadas, em sua maioria fundamentalistas religiosas ligadas à Al-Qaeda e à Irmandade Muçulmana. O principal apoio vem da Turquia e da Arábia Saudita, que por serem países sunitas, querem enfraquecer os rivais religiosos; também recebem apoio de Estados Unidos, União Europeia e Israel. Onde as milícias rebeldes conquistaram o poder, perseguições religiosas e opressão às mulheres se tornaram lei. Há também suspeita de uso de armas químicas.

Diante desta situação, a população curda do norte da Síria viu a oportunidade de se tornar independente. O Partido da União Democrática (PYD) assumiu o controle da região e, inspirando-se no PKK, iniciou um processo revolucionário, socialista, ecológico e feminista. A situação militar passou para os braços armados YPG e YPJ, o segundo sendo exclusivamente formado por mulheres. Tanto o Governo quanto os rebeldes rejeitaram a atitude e tentaram tomar o controle da região, mas foram expulsos.

(Foto: xilogravura da @revistacomando)

Então o pior aconteceu. A Al-Qaeda do Iraque se rebelou contra a própria organização e fundou uma inteiramente nova: o Estado Islâmico (ou Daesh). Esse grupo, se aproveitando do caos na Síria e das armas deixadas pelos EUA no Iraque (após a invasão), assumiu o controle de metade de ambos os países, e declarou guerra ao mundo todo. O Daesh começou a realizar vídeos mostrando execuções de prisioneiros, promoveu atentados terroristas, escravizou e estuprou mulheres e crianças e se mostrou uma força quase impossível de ser parada.

O novos extremistas decidiram que o primeiro alvo deveria ser a Revolução Curda, associada ao pecado. Cercaram a cidade de Kobane, e por um momento, o mundo inteiro olhou com apreensão. Mas o jogo virou: a brava resistência curda derrotou os terroristas fanáticos e começou a empurrar seus soldados de volta, expandindo a Revolução para mais e mais regiões. Milícias árabes e de outras etnias se juntaram aos curdos, dando origem às Forças Democráticas da Síria (FDS).

Os Estados Unidos, vendo uma oportunidade para se apresentarem como heróis, decidiram oferecer armamento e apoio militar à FDS no combate ao Daesh. A mídia ocidental começou a falar da importância curda na guerra, mas esconderam o caráter socialista e revolucionário da sua sociedade, apresentando como algo nacionalista e até mesmo liberal. Entre 2017 e 2018, o Estado Islâmico foi completamente derrotado.

Toda essa guerra e violência levou milhões de sírios a fugirem para outros países, incluindo na Europa. A grande quantidade de imigrantes fortaleceu partidos racistas e xenófobos de extrema direita, como a Reunificação Nacional na França ou o Alternativa para a Alemanha.

A Estrada até aqui

A Turquia vive sob um governo de direita liderado por Erdogan, um conservador religioso ligado à Irmandade Muçulmana. Diante do fortalecimento da Revolução Curda, que está na fronteira da Síria e da Turquia, ele decidiu endurecer. O governo turco começou a aumentar a repressão à população curda dentro do próprio país, e também a preparar o exército para atacar a região revolucionária na Síria.

A Turquia é o segundo maior exército da OTAN – uma aliança militar liderada pelos EUA – e atendendo ao pedido de seu aliado, Donald Trump anunciou o corte no apoio aos revolucionários curdos. A saída dos Estados Unidos foi um sinal verde para Erdogan iniciar um ataque em massa contra a Revolução, contando com o apoio dos rebeldes fundamentalistas (que sempre foram apoiados pelo seu governo).

Diante desta situação, a FDS iniciou uma aliança militar com Assad para resistirem aos inimigos em comum. O governo sírio pretende usar a ameaça militar turca para forçar o povo curdo a abandonar a Revolução e voltar a se submeter ao antigo regime; infelizmente, por hora, o curdistão sírio não vê outra opção diante do risco de genocídio.

Tudo indica que pode estar sendo construído um grande acordo internacional. A Turquia, vendo que não tem como seus rebeldes vencerem a Guerra Civil Síria, quer o fim da Revolução Curda. Assad quer a unidade nacional síria sob seu controle, incluindo o fim da autonomia curda. Os EUA, a Rússia, a União Europeia e todos os outros governos do mundo estão dispostos a abençoar esse acordo para evitarem novas imigrações.

É urgente que a esquerda não permita que a maior Revolução do século 21 caia no esquecimento. Ela é a prova de que Socialismo e Democracia podem conviver, fora das experiências autoritárias stalinistas e do reformismo socialdemocrata, conciliando anticapitalismo, ecologia e libertação nacional e da mulher.

¹ Baath significa “Socialismo Árabe”. Apesar do nome, se refere à uma ideologia nacionalista, pan-arabista, que busca unificar os povos árabes em torno de uma luta anti-imperialista regional. Ou seja, está distante de representar o que nós entendemos como socialismo (anticapitalismo e socialização dos meios de produção).

² O Islã é dividido em duas vertentes: xiismo e sunismo. Os sunitas são a imensa maioria em quase todos os países muçulmanos. Os xiitas são maioria apenas no Irã, mas tem presença em governos como na Síria e no Iraque. Ambos possuem fundamentalistas e moderados.

³ Bookchin acreditava que a luta por local de trabalho, ou seja, a luta sindical, estava ultrapassada e não servia mais aos nossos tempos. Atualmente, a melhor estratégia seria a organização popular por locais de moradia, como os bairros, promovendo assembleias populares na vizinhança.

As colunas são um espaço de opinião. Posições e argumentos expressos neste espaço não necessariamente refletem o ponto de vista do JORNAL DOIS.

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