Prefeitura planeja liberar terras para loteamentos e expandir perímetro urbano

Na primeira das audiências públicas para discutir o tema, empresários reforçaram a pressa em flexibilizar leis de uso do solo; uma área do tamanho da zona sul e do centro juntos, pode ser destinada para empreendimentos

Reportagem publicada em 18 de janeiro de 2018

As cinco áreas de expansão (em vermelho) somam 12,5 milhões de m² (Foto: Lucas Mendes/JORNAL DOIS)

Por Lucas Mendes

Passava das 19h quando a secretária municipal de planejamento, Letícia Kirshner, tomou a palavra para dar início à primeira audiência pública que discute as zonas de indústria, comércio e serviços (ZICS) em Bauru e a expansão da parte urbana da cidade. A reunião ocorreu na sede da Assenag (Associação dos Engenheiros, Arquitetos e Agrônomos de Bauru), na zona sul da cidade, e contou com cerca de 100 pessoas.

Criadas pelo Plano Diretor Participativo de Bauru (PDP), em 2008, as ZICS são ao todo 26 áreas espalhadas pela cidade. São espaços delimitados para a instalação de indústrias e empresas do comércio ou prestadoras de serviços. O uso das ZICS surgiu como medida para incentivar a instalação de empreendimentos no município.

Segundo a secretária, ao longo desses dez anos desde sua criação, essas áreas não foram muito ocupadas. Para driblar isso, Kirshner apresentou o projeto do prefeito Clodoaldo Gazzetta (PSD) para “destravar” a cidade e incentivar o desenvolvimento — promessa de campanha que se arrastou ao longo do seu primeiro ano de mandato.

O que vai mudar?

A ideia da prefeitura é atuar em duas frentes: flexibilizar o uso das ZICS e expandir o perímetro urbano de Bauru — a fronteira que separa a parte urbana da parte rural da cidade. As duas ações pretendem trazer investidores para a cidade e gerar desenvolvimento e emprego.

 

Macrozoneamento de Bauru: cada área colorida corresponde a um tipo de finalidade; ver mapas AQUI (Foto: PDP Bauru)

“Percebemos que o instrumento das ZICS não está dando certo e que falta incentivo”, falou a secretária. Por isso, o objetivo do projeto é dar um uso efetivo às ZICS.

De acordo com o projeto, as ZICS serão divididas em três grupos, cada um seguindo as características de cada região, da geografia e da vocação de investimentos.

Se aprovado, o projeto vai permitir usos mistos e diversificados dentro das ZICS, além de indústria, comércio e serviços. Assim, pretende-se trazer mais empresas com possibilidades de construir empreendimentos residenciais, por exemplo.

Perímetro urbano

Ponto defendido por todos que pediram a palavra na reunião, a expansão do perímetro urbano de Bauru foi a segunda discussão da noite. Segundo a prefeitura, diferentes setores da sociedade apresentam ao poder público uma demanda por mais áreas de empreendimentos.

“Percebemos que Bauru está sem opções, e entendemos ser importante criar novas oportunidades, por isso estamos trazendo essa questão”, revelou a secretária.

A proposta é encarada com cautela pelo poder público. Letícia Kirshner demonstrou preocupação em expandir as áreas urbanas, principalmente aquelas destinadas à habitação de interesse social. A distância do centro da cidade e a oferta de serviços públicos e infraestrutura deve ser pesada na balança.

Manifestação do Movimento Social de Luta dos Trabalhadores, em Bauru, pela reforma urbana. Na cidade, o desenvolvimento urbano historicamente está associado à especulação imobiliária (Foto: Lucas Mendes/JORNAL DOIS)

“Expansão urbana custa caro”, disse ela. “São equipamentos públicos, estrutura, transporte. Por isso essas áreas de expansão devem ser contíguas [grudadas] com as áreas já consolidadas”, explicou.

Como será feito?

Para expandir o perímetro urbano, algumas orientações deverão ser respeitadas:

  • As áreas de expansão devem estar colados no restante da cidade;
  • Não se deve expandir em áreas que estão dentro das APAs (Área de Proteção Ambiental);
  • Deve se avaliar a viabilidade de abastecimento de água;
  • Deve se avaliar a viabilidade de acesso, com ruas e estradas;

Ao todo, são cinco áreas que podem se tornar parte do perímetro urbano, podendo ser loteadas e usadas. Essa terra tem aproximadamente 12,5 milhões de m², o equivalente à soma das áreas da zona sul e do centro.

Alguns dos presentes na reunião não ficaram satisfeitos com a proposta. Muitas falas defenderam mais desregulamentação nas leis de uso do solo, pedindo maior liberdade de ação para o mercado, ou mesmo a utilização de terras dentro das APAs.

Para se aproveitar o uso do solo, as áreas de proteção ambiental precisam de um plano de manejo. Esse plano é um documento feito com estudos sobre o meio ambiente da região, estabelecendo normas, restrições para o uso e ações que podem ser desenvolvidas dentro das APAs.

No momento, o plano de manejo da APA do Batalha está começando, e da APA do Vargem Limpa/Campo Novo está em fase de licitação. O plano da APA da Água Parada já existe e deverá passar por uma revisão.

O vereador José Roberto Martins Segalla (DEM), que também é presidente da Assenag, defendeu mais “pressa” nessa discussão, a fim de que o “destravamento” de Bauru possa acontecer de forma mais rápida.

Mais três audiências públicas devem acontecer a fim de ouvir a população, discutir os temas e refinar a proposta. Após o procedimento, o conteúdo será remetido ao Conselho do Município de Bauru, que deverá deliberar. Se aprovado, segue para a Câmara Municipal.

Por quê expandir?

Um dos argumentos usados para defender a expansão do perímetro urbano é o de que isso faria cair o preço do m² de terra em Bauru. Na cidade, o preço médio do m² chega a cerca de 4 mil reais, segundo dados da Secovi (Sindicato de Habitação do Estado de São Paulo).

A escassez de terra para empreendimentos pode ser analisada por outro lado, ao se levar em conta os “vazios urbanos”. Esses vazios são terrenos parados e sem uso que estão dentro do perímetro urbano da cidade.

De acordo com o Plano Diretor Participativo de Bauru, dentro do perímetro urbano existem inúmeros terrenos sem utilização que estão esperando a valorização imobiliária, “servindo de depósito de lixo e criação de gado, propiciando o desenvolvimento de epidemias graves, como a Leishmaniose”.

Além disso, conforme o documento, os terrenos vazios funcionam como barreiras que impedem a continuidade da urbanização, o que força a expansão do perímetro urbano, aumentando o trajeto do transporte público e encarecendo a implantação de infra-estrutura. Ainda segundo o diagnóstico do plano, na época (2008), os lotes vagos correspondiam a 40% do total de lançamentos de IPTU em Bauru, um “número significativo”.

Dois lados da mesma moeda: empreendimento Três Américas II, do Minha Casa Minha Vida, divide a cena com ocupação do movimento Força Nacional de Luta, próximo à Vila Dutra, na periferia de Bauru (Foto: Lucas Mendes/JORNAL DOIS)

Especialistas da área também criticam a existência dos vazios e a falta de políticas para combater essa situação. José Xaides de Sampaio Alves, urbanista da Unesp entende que o não enfrentamento da questão da ocupação dos vazios urbanos centrais gera a continuidade da exclusão e periferização da moradia popular. Isso acarreta problemas de “distanciamento e falta de relação com a oferta de equipamentos públicos, especialmente de educação, saúde, lazer e esporte; falta de conexão e de programas com áreas geradoras de trabalho e renda; falta de relação com programas ambientais”.

Segundo uma cartilha do Ministério das Cidades sobre moradia adequada, a situação urbana brasileira é resultado de políticas de planejamento e gestão urbana excludentes, pois não levam em conta as necessidades específicas da população. Essa lógica de urbanização atende a certos setores da sociedade, e tem como consequência a formação de vazios urbanos, surgidos “como resultado de processos desarticulados de aprovação de loteamentos ou práticas conscientes de especulação imobiliária”.

Com a justificativa de diminuir custos para produzir casa própria, o poder público colocou a habitação popular fora dos centros urbanos, “em terrenos desprovidos de infraestrutura, equipamentos públicos, serviços essenciais e oferta de emprego”. Esse processo é conhecido como periferização, e faz as populações mais pobres serem cada vez mais empurradas para longe do centro.

Reduzir vazios urbanos é uma das formas de manter as cidades mais compactas, diminuindo distâncias (Reprodução/Ministério das Cidades)

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