Por quê tantos estudantes em fase pré-vestibular sofrem com problemas psicológicos?

A lógica da educação como mercadoria escancara as desigualdades de um sistema educacional excludente e que prejudica a saúde mental dos estudantes, mas que gera bilhões para grupos educacionais

Reportagem publicada em 10 de janeiro de 2018

Lógica do vestibular compromete grande parte do processo educativo; educação é vista como indústria (Charge: Latuff/LatuffCartoons)

Por Lucas Zanetti

Em 2010, Natália prestou o vestibular pela primeira vez. Recém saída do ensino médio cursado na rede pública, seguiu a ordem natural de grande parte dos estudantes brasileiros: a tentativa de se profissionalizar por meio do ensino superior, conseguir uma boa posição no mercado de trabalho e atingir estabilidade financeira.

A estudante não passou. Logo depois, enfrentou uma fase depressiva, sem foco, sem conseguir estudar. “Foi como se estivesse parada no tempo. Estava acontecendo várias coisas na minha vida, tinha a ver com o fato de não conseguir uma bolsa de estudo e não conseguir começar um curso superior”, lembra.

Após passar por empregos de nível médio e alguns “bicos”, em 2017 Natália procurou o Cursinho Ferradura, pré-vestibular gratuito vinculado à Faculdade de Ciências da Unesp, com esperança de retomar os estudos e ingressar na graduação.

A realidade de Natália é a mesma de milhares de estudantes brasileiros em fase vestibular. Segundo o estudo “Ansiedade e depressão em vestibulandos”, publicado pela revista Odontologia Clínico-Cinetífica em 2013, 58,5% dos estudantes analisados sofrem com transtorno de ansiedade e 28,4% possuem depressão.

Estudantes fazem oficina de Yoga na Feira de Profissões dos Cursinhos da Unesp, iniciativa é importante para ajudar manter a calma (Foto: Reprodução/Feira de Profissões Cursinhos da Unesp)

O estudo atribui os números às pressões sofridas nesse período: cobranças familiares e escolares, inseguranças em relação à escolha do curso e o medo do desempenho na prova. Tais fatores contribuem para desestabilizar emocionalmente os estudantes, o que pode prejudicar o processo educativo. Os problemas psicológicos, revelam um problema estrutural: a desigualdade histórica no direito ao acesso à educação básica e superior de qualidade.

Vestibular nasce para excluir

O vestibular foi implementado como sistema de seleção para o ensino superior no início século XX, com o surgimento das escolas de direito e medicina. A recente república brasileira fez com que as faculdades fossem cada vez mais procuradas por estudantes das classes médias e altas. Ele surge com a proposta de selecionar os melhores e passou por muitas modificações até chegar no que existe hoje.

É a partir da ampliação das vagas no ensino superior, especialmente nas universidades privadas, das deficiências da educação básica e a constatação de um potencial lucrativo que, na década de 60, os cursinhos passam a se popularizar no Brasil.

“O aluno acaba encontrando esse lugar, que nem cabe no sistema educacional, para aprender conteúdos que deveria ter aprendido ao longo do caminho”, afirma a pedagoga e socióloga Marcia Lopes Reis, coordenadora do Cursinho Ferradura e professora da Unesp. É a partir daí que “o vestibular começa a ser questionado porque dá um sinal do quanto não foi aprendido ao longo dos 11 anos da educação básica”, completa.

Márcia ainda explica que a responsabilidade pela própria educação e empregabilidade recai sobre o indivíduo como se “o estado já tivesse feito tudo”, porém “ficamos praticamente 450 anos parados em termos de educação nesse país”. A doutora finaliza lembrando que o vestibular tem por concepção excluir e que essa exclusão acaba recaindo sobre os estudantes pobres.

De exceção, os cursinhos passaram a ser regra para quem pretende fazer um curso de graduação. Na universidade mais concorrida do país, a Universidade de São Paulo (USP) 76,6% dos matriculados realizaram ao menos um ano de cursinho, de acordo com o anuário estatístico dos ingressantes.

Os cursinhos em Bauru

Bauru possui seis cursinhos gratuitos e cerca de 15 particulares. Dos cursos gratuitos, três são vinculados à Unesp, um vinculado à CIPS, e dois são de iniciativas populares e autogeridos.

O Cursinho Ferradura, vinculado à Unesp atende cerca de 320 estudantes em todos os períodos. A perspectiva para 2018 é diminuir uma turma, já que a universidade sinalizou corte de gastos. Para suprir a demanda sem sucatear o projeto, o Ferradura busca fazer parcerias com o setor público, como já ocorre na cidade de Agudos. Para Amira Rabah, estudante de psicologia e coordenadora pedagógica, além da questão financeira a universidade deve oferecer uma estrutura melhor para as atividades.

“Além das bolsas, deveria ter capacitações dos colaboradores, profissionais experientes, pedagogos que estão imersos no mundo da educação e dos cursinhos. O cursinho acaba virando uma fachada para dizer que a Unesp está tendo políticas de inclusão. Ela cria o projeto mas não dá suporte para que ele se exista de um jeito que vá funcionar de verdade”, critica.
Cursinho Popular Acesso Hip Hop é autogerido e busca levar inclusão para a população da periferia de Bauru (Foto: Reprodução/Cursinho Popular Acesso Hip Hop)

O Cursinho Popular Acesso Hip Hop, iniciativa vinculada à Casa do Hip Hop é um dos cursinhos gratuitos autogeridos. Julia Conceição, coordenadora do projeto e estudante de psicologia, explica que todos os recursos possuídos por eles foram conseguidos por meio de iniciativas próprias. “A gente não tinha projetor, a gente não tinha material. O projetor conseguimos pela festa junina organizada pela gente. O material foi por meio de um edital. Apagador, projetor, foi tudo pela festa junina, agora na segunda edição”, relata.

Educação como mercadoria

Julia acredita que a lógica de mercado coloca estudantes de classes sociais diferentes em uma competição desigual: “a ideia do mercado é destruir o ensino público para favorecer as escolas privadas. Nem todas as escolas privadas conseguem competir então se cria essa falência que é o cursinho, que vai dar ainda mais dinheiro para o mercado que se tornou a educação”, analisa.

Um exemplo da mercantilização da educação é o Grupo Kroton. Em 2014 a empresa comprou o Grupo Educacional Anhanguera e em 2016, a Universidade Estácio de Sá, tornando-se o maior grupo educacional do mundo. Com a compra, a Kroton tornou-se responsável por cerca de 1,5 milhão de estudantes. Na época da fusão, houve intervenção do legislativo com a suspeita de que o grupo concentraria cerca de 50% das matrículas do FIES.

Na lógica da mercantilização da educação, o ensino é mais uma mercadoria a ser consumida (Ilustração: Fontes Diversas/Publicidade)
“O Estado brasileiro tomou a opção, explícita, de não ampliar suas vagas na universidade pública, mas repassar para os grupos do capital sob o pretexto de geração de emprego. O Estado não queria investir nessa área e esses grupos são bastante interessados nesse lugar que tem garantia de lucro. Estado e mercado ficam bastante confortáveis”, avalia Márcia Reis.

Otaviano Helene, professor da USP e autor de inúmeros trabalhos sobre o sistema educacional brasileiro, defende que a parceria entre educação e mercado assinada pelo Estado brasileiro é uma das grandes responsáveis pelos problemas gerados no período vestibular.

Ele cita como exemplo os critérios de distribuição dos cursos que tem como diretriz o aumento dos lucros. “Isso faz com que haja uma enorme quantidade de cursos de forte apelo mercantil oferecidos nas regiões mais ricas e que dão pouquíssimas contribuições para o desenvolvimento econômico, social e cultural do país, ao mesmo tempo em que as regiões e profissões que mais necessitam reforços são abandonadas”, diz.

Outra consequência do problema é que o mercado não é capaz de absorver a quantidade de profissionais formados, gerando a chamada “Inflação do Diploma”. A formação superior perde o seu valor e a sua finalidade em um processo previsto por Rubem Alves em sua crônica “O país dos chapéus”.

O impacto no estudante é inevitável, segundo Marcia Reis. Para ela, ao criar demandas e necessidades que nem sempre se sustentam, por meio das especulações e tentativas próprias do mercado em uma lógica “incoerente”, “joga essa frustração para um conjunto de alunos que se veem no dilema da empregabilidade, que se culpam por isso, mas o problema é de uma conjuntura criada por esse próprio mercado”.

Natália ainda aguarda o resultado do vestibular. “Se eu passar pretendo mudar pra Bauru e conciliar faculdade e emprego, se eu conseguir um. Se não passar, pretendo fazer cursinho de novo ano que vem e dessa vez me dedicar mais”, conta. “As pessoas que se dedicam mais é porque têm tempo ou condições para isso, vieram de famílias que puderam dar uma educação melhor. Infelizmente, nem todos nasceram em famílias favorecidas para ter o mesmo tipo de oportunidade”, finaliza a estudante.
Esta é uma reportagem opinativa. A apuração e checagem das informações expressas seguem o rigor jornalístico orientado com base em uma hipótese elaborada pelo repórter.

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