Por que os buracos em Bauru voltam a aparecer?

Entenda porque o tapa-buraco é ineficiente, a importância do planejamento da pavimentação, a escolha dos materiais e o quanto foi gasto nessas obras

Reportagem publicada em 6 de fevereiro de 2019

Buraco entre as esquinas da avenida Orlando Ranieri e rua Doutor Gonzaga Machado no Jardim Marambá (Foto: Bibiana Garrido/JORNAL DOIS)
Por Maria Esther Castedo

A receita do asfalto é como um bolo de quatro camadas. Na primeira, temos o subleito, composto pela terra natural do terreno. Nele, é feito um estudo de nível que assegura o equilíbrio entre a altura da rua e a das casas, em seguida, é feita sua limpeza e terraplanagem. Se for necessário um reforço, são adicionados entre 5 a 10 centímetros de terra semelhante ao do terreno, que é compactado. Caso seja um solo mole, essa camada pode ser maior.

Na segunda camada temos a sub-base, com cerca de 15 centímetros, em que são depositados materiais granulares, como cascalhos e pedregulhos. Em seguida, a base é composta pelos mesmos materiais anteriores, mas compactados. Por último, o revestimento, ou Concreto Betuminoso Usinado à Quente (CBUQ), o mais usado no Brasil.

“O concreto é uma mistura entre areia, pedra e pra dar liga, você usa um elemento chamado CAP (Cimento Asfáltico de Petróleo), feito de pó de pedra, de areia e CAP. Se você errar nessa quantidade, você vai ter um revestimento do pavimento de baixa qualidade. Se você acertar, você terá um com alta durabilidade”, explica Celso Donizete, coordenador do curso de engenharia civil da faculdade Eduvale de Avaré e especialista em pavimentação.

A pavimentação poderia durar até seis anos, segundo Celso, caso fossem seguidas todas as normas técnicas da pavimentação (Arte: Maria Esther Castedo/JORNAL DOIS)

Ademais, o nome correto desse processo é pavimentação, já que o asfalto é como a cereja do bolo, somente a última camada, mas necessária para dar acabamento e impermeabilizar a rua. Dessa forma, caso as ruas de Bauru, assim como do país, fossem executadas seguindo essa receita, duraria por anos a vida útil do pavimento.

Explicado como funciona a pavimentação, precisamos entender quatro fatores que afetam a qualidade dela na cidade. Até porque o Departamento de Água e Esgoto (DAE) informou no dia 18/01 que 700 valas esperavam manutenção e por isso, abriram uma licitação para que uma empresa fizesse o serviço de tapa-buraco com o uso de 1.000 toneladas de CBUQ por um ano. E o valor desse concreto mais do que dobrou nos últimos dois anos.

Recentemente, os moradores enfrentaram trânsito devido às obras de recapeamento nos principais cruzamentos da cidade. Serviço que será finalizado em março e que também inclui a pintura de sinalização para pedestres. No total, serão 17 mil quilômetros de recape e 6 mil de pintura feitos pela Secretaria de Obras

Sistema de drenagem

Para Ricardo Olivatto, Secretário de Obras da cidade, o principal problema está na falta de galerias de drenagem e na péssima qualidade das mesmas. “A máxima na cidade é [que o pavimento é] muito ruim, a verdade é que a cidade de Bauru é muito má planejada porque durante anos se privilegiou a pavimentação sem a criação de galerias de drenagem. Só que a cidade não tem como receber a água da chuva, ela nada pelo asfalto e desgasta o asfalto”. Olivatto também aponta como motivo a má execução das galerias que acabam abrindo os buracos na rua.

Segundo um estudo encomendado pela Prefeitura de Bauru sobre o Plano Municipal de Saneamento Básico (PMSB) a cidade tem um sistema de drenagem com medidas corretivas e estruturais, sem envolver medidas preventivas para os problemas de drenagem da água. E funciona assim: a tecnologia adotada na cidade é de rápido escoamento e disposição final das águas pluviais. O sistema opera por gravidade, no qual a chuva é coletada por sistemas de microdrenagem e conduzida por um rede de galerias subterrâneas até os canais de macrodrenagem.

Estima-se que Bauru tenha cerca de 7.000 bocas-de-lobo e que há cerca de 340 km de rede de microdrenagem implantada e operante no município (Imagem: PSMB/Fonte: Estudo PSMB)

Como consequência, a falta de drenagem e sua ineficiência começam a minar por baixo o asfalto e provocar rachaduras por onde a água penetra. Da mesma maneira, os alagamentos provocam a deterioração do pavimento. “A água vai correr pela superfície e na hora que ela entra nessas trincas na superfície, vai começar a arrancar as camadas que serão arrastadas pela enxurrada, e evidentemente, se encontrar alguma tubulação de drenagem, vai entupir e prejudicar ainda mais esse local”, chama a atenção Celso.

O quadro ainda piora quando notamos outras consequências como os problemas de alagamentos e inundações em Bauru. De acordo com o estudo, o município possui 82 pontos com diferentes níveis de riscos, com pouca ou nenhuma intervenção para seu controle, resolução ou ações previstas para a melhoria na drenagem.

Mesmo havendo algumas diretrizes no Plano Diretor Participativo (2008), faltam regulamentações necessárias para desenvolvimento das ações, programas e projetos ali definidos para melhorar a drenagem (Imagem: PSMB/Fonte: Estudo PSMB)

Exemplos não faltam. “Na [avenida] Nossa Senhora de Fátima, tem no máximo uns oito bueiros. Fazem isso porque analisam o tamanho do investimento de galeria e asfalto. Você vai descobrir que os dois saem o dobro de só o asfalto”, completa Olivatto.

Quantas chuvas aguenta um tapa-buraco

Quando começam as obras de tapa-buraco, o pensamento comum é que o problema será resolvido. Na verdade, essa é uma ação paliativa, medida provisória para um buraco que voltará a se abrir. Isso porque muitas vezes o buraco, que deveria levar as quatro camadas, recebe somente duas: brita ou cimento com terra e asfalto grosso. Ou seja, não é culpa da chuva nem dos carros.

Então, como seria o reparo correto de um buraco? Celso fala do processo passo a passo, “você esquadreja ao redor desse buraco, corta e remove toda a parte até a camada que foi afetada e recompõe com aquilo que tinha no local, utilizando uma cola que também é a base de CAP. É um CAP derretido, que vai colar, aderir as duas partes. É como consertar uma cárie, ou seja, remover tudo que tá comprometido ali e as laterais que estão se desprendendo, fazer limpeza e compactação.”

Qualidade

É necessário levar em conta no planejamento da pavimentação especificações como clima, terreno e volume de tráfego de veículos. Em alguns casos, as ruas de terras em Bauru possuem um nivelamento melhor que as pavimentadas. O J2 já fez um mapeamento de quais bairros possuem ruas de terras em Bauru, você pode ler aqui.

No planejamento também é escolhido o CAP. Segundo a Agência Nacional do Petróleo (ANP), regulamento técnico ANP nº03/2005, existem 4 tipos de CAP: 30 a 45, 50 a 70, 85 a 100 e 150 a 200. Essas variações indicam o quanto, por exemplo, uma agulha penetraria nesse asfalto. No primeiro tipo de CAP, entraria de 30 a 45 milímetros, e por aí vai. Dessa maneira, verificamos que é esse primeiro tipo o que “menos afunda”, e portanto, o mais duro.

Outro elemento é a temperatura do asfalto, já que o CAP sofre deformação. Entretanto, as mesmas técnicas de pavimentação aplicadas em Bauru, são aplicada em qualquer lugar do Brasil sem levar em conta o fator climático. “A temperatura do pavimento chega a 70⁰ graus, o que afeta o CAP 100 a 200. O ideal seria o 30 a 45 para a cidade, ele é mais caro, mas faz com que a recorrência em manutenção preventiva e corretiva seja menor”, explica Celso.

 

A própria normatização brasileira sobre pavimentação não sofre alterações desde 1966. Nem leva em conta o aumento no fluxo de veículos, que hoje são de aproximadamente 43 milhões, segundo a Sindipeças. Além disso, novas tecnologias de pavimentação surgiram para melhorar a aderência dos pneus em dias de chuva, otimização da drenagem e redução de ruído nas estradas. No Brasil, poucas dessas tecnologias são aplicadas.

Entretanto, mesmo com as velhas técnicas, ainda seria possível ter uma pavimentação com duração de até 6 anos em Bauru. É o que calcula Celso: “É possível! Desde que você projete utilizando o material e todas as técnicas de pavimentação que existem. Se você usar o CAP correto, se você executar toda a estrutura do pavimento, todas as camadas, evidentemente você vai ter um pavimento de mais durabilidade. Se em média tá durando um ano, seria cinco ou seis anos.”

O barato sai caro: orçamento

Lembrando o episódio em que o muro da E.E Professor Antônio Serralvo Sobrinho caiu, o secretário de obras disse que “80% do bairro precisa de rede de galerias, primeiro teria que quebrar o asfalto, remover água e esgoto…o custo é alto”. Para resolver essa deficiência presente em toda cidade, seria necessário um investimento de R$ 567 milhões somente na drenagem, valor estipulado pelo Plano Municipal de Saneamento Básico.

Além disso, os programas de tapa-buraco se tornaram mais caros. Segundo a ANP, o preço do CAP 50/70 que era R$ 1,52/kg em dezembro de 2017, após um ano subiu para R$ 2,39. Sendo assim, em 2017 a Secretaria de Obras pagou por duas mil tonelada de CBUQ o valor de R$ 757 mil — uma tonelada saiu R$ 378,65 — para a empresa Fortpav pelos serviços de tapa-buraco. Em licitação concluída em setembro de 2018, a mesma empresa cobrou por tonelada R$ 854, valor 125% mais caro. Na última ocasião, foram gastos R$ 1.281.125,00 por 1.500 toneladas. E neste ano, uma nova licitação foi aberta pela Secretaria de Obras, pedido de 5.000 toneladas de CBUQ.

Somado a isso, ainda temos em Bauru as obras do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC) do Asfalto. Com um investimento total de R$ 58 milhões, sendo a contrapartida da Prefeitura de R$ 15 milhões, ao todo serão asfaltadas 704 quadras. Nela, são previstas a instalação de 26 quilômetros de galerias pluviais. Entretanto, Olivatto acredita que “Bauru deve ter hoje 30% de capacidade de galeria instalada. Com o PAC, aumentou pouco”. A previsão para o fim das obras é junho deste ano.

Como estão as obras do PAC do Asfalto no Parque Santa Edwiges (Foto: Carlos Eduardo Arruda Botelho/Presidente da Associação de Moradores do bairro)

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