Pesquisa aponta que 90% das mulheres de Bauru já sofreram assédio

Coletivo de estudantes de Artes Visuais coletou dados e depoimentos sobre o assédio em Bauru

Reportagem publicada em 25 de abril de 2018

 

Por Maria Esther Castedo

Na ida para academia, no ponto de ônibus, no caminho para escola, um homem que corre atrás, que persegue, que abaixa as calças. O sentimento é o medo, a culpa, a dúvida e a falta de proteção. Foram 239 depoimentos de mulheres que contaram episódios de assédio. Esse número nem chega na metade das mulheres que falaram terem sofrido algum tipo de assédio na vida. A porcentagem exata: 90,2% de mulheres já foram assediadas em Bauru.

A pesquisa foi feita pelo coletivo Mirarte, um grupo de estudantes de Artes Visuais da Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, campus de Bauru. São elas: Gabriela Yumi Sampei, Maria Luiza Ramos Tonussi, Mariane Santinello Longhi, Nathália Augusto e Rafaela Pupin de Oliveira.

Ao todo, o questionário online foi respondido por 533 mulheres e a maioria foram meninas de 17 anos. Em seguida, 21 anos, 19, 20, 18 e 16. No formulário, as mulheres também podiam escrever seus relatos, o que demonstrou muitas terem passado por isso pela primeira vez ainda quando eram crianças ou pré-adolescentes. Dado semelhante ao que foi evidenciado por meio da campanha meu #PrimeiroAssedio. A hashtag criada pela ONG Think Olga detectou que a média de idade quando ocorre a primeira violência é aos 9, 7 anos.

Esses dados se juntam aos vários já coletados no Brasil sobre o tema. Em um estudo global apresentado no Dia da Mulher deste ano pela empresa de pesquisa Ipsos, o assédio aparece como o principal problema enfrentado pelas mulheres — a pesquisa aconteceu em 27 países. Aqui, as entrevistadas responderam que o abuso sexual é o principal problema, com 47%, ficando em segundo lugar o assédio. Já o Datafolha apresentou no final do ano passado, que quatro a cada dez mulheres disseram terem sofrido com o assédio.

Os dados bauruenses dialogam com a realidade da mulher brasileira. Eles apontaram também por quais casos de assédio as moradoras de Bauru já passaram. Isso porque o assédio pode ser definido como “uma conduta verbal ou física de natureza sexual cujo autor sabe ou deveria saber que é ofensiva à vítima”, segundo a Comissão Europeia em 1987 (após pressões dos movimentos feministas).

E o resultado foi o seguinte: mais de 90% responderam terem sido cantadas de maneira constrangedora, ouvir piadinhas ou comentários de coação psicológica. E essas violências ocorreram na rua (87,8%), praças, parques e demais espaços públicos (69,2%), transporte público (40%) e na escola ou faculdade (34%).
Arte: Maria Esther Castedo — Fonte: Coletivo Mirarte

As cantadas na rua chegaram a ser tema de uma campanha: a #ChegadeFiuFiu, que se lançou como uma resposta ao assédio sexual em espaços públicos. Se formos atrás de dados de assédio no transporte público, o número mais recente é da última quinta-feira (20). A Secretaria de Estado da Segurança Pública revelou um aumento nos casos de abuso sexual — nele incluído os casos de assédio — no Estado de São Paulo. De 165 casos registrados entre janeiro e março do ano passado, o número subiu para 180 no primeiro trimestre de 2018.

As integrantes do coletivo relatam sua vivência. “Carros passam e mexem, a gente se sente insegura, é como se a gente tivesse que ter 20 olhos pra ver se alguém tá se aproximando (a noite) com a gente.Tivemos acesso a conteúdos bem fortes e mostrou que realmente Bauru esconde um pouco dessa realidade”.

Arte: Maria Esther Castedo/JORNAL DOIS

As meninas do coletivo Mirarte disseram que o questionário foi postado na página delas e impulsionado. Também foi compartilhado em diversos grupos online, tanto de universidades quanto gerais. Apesar dessa diversidade, elas apontaram um elemento interessante: “as meninas mais jovens divulgavam a publicação, marcando outras meninas também”.

Mapa do assédio

As mulheres também foram questionadas em qual região de Bauru ocorreram as violências. Dessa forma, foi criado um mapa que você confere a seguir:

Legenda: As cores indicam onde ocorreram os assédio de maneira decrescente, sendo os pontos vermelhos os que mais tiveram relatos. Seguido do amarelo e verde. (Mapa: Coletivo Mirarte)

Dá pra ver que o centro, a região do Bauru Shopping e proximidades do bairro Jardim Brasil, são os pontos onde mais foram relatados os assédios. Locais conhecidos pela grande quantidade de apartamentos universitários, repúblicas e endereço da Universidade Sagrado Coração (USC). Este dado pode não refletir a realidade, visto que a pesquisa não abrange a cidade toda e que possivelmente foi respondida por estudantes, em sua maioria (ou por quem habita esses espaços)

Arte-ativismo

O coletivo Mirarte apresentou os dados como trabalho da matéria de Reflexões Poéticas Transdisciplinares II, com orientação da Profa. Dra. Regilene Aparecida Sarzi Ribeiro. Além de ter um quadro geral do assédio na cidade, o segundo passo foi levar esse material para as ruas. “Nosso projeto se sente como um abraço para essas mulheres, a gente escuta e transforma em arte e denúncia, e que faça pensar quem está ferindo essas mulheres”, e foi por meio de lambes que elas produziram isso.

Os lambes foram colados em locais que foram marcados no mapa do assédio (Fotos: Coletivo Mirarte)

A escolha se inspira em projetos como o “Cidade Subjetiva” e o “Deixa ela em paz”. Ambos dialogam a relação dos moradores com suas cidades. E o uso de lambes, como explicam as integrantes do Mirarte, “[são] uma forma direta e acessível para as pessoas se expressarem e é barata, ao alcance das pessoas na rua”.

O local onde foram colados se baseou nos lugares onde as mulheres sofreram os assédios. Para citar alguns, são eles o calçadão da Batista, as universidades UNESP e USC e na avenida Rodrigues Alves. “O lambe tem esse caráter crítico, te instiga, te faz pensar. Alguns lambes foram realizados através de depoimentos, a gente digeria tudo aquilo e surgia a ideia. Ou tinham relação direta com os depoimentos, parafraseando o que a pessoa tinha relatado.”

A relação entre a arte e feminismo fica evidente para o coletivo. Representar as mulheres na arte e ser mulher fazendo arte foram objeto de reflexão durante o processo de criação. Por aqui, também temos o projeto Dafnes que faz uma releitura do mito grego, usando o audiovisual como linguagem para retratar as vivências das mulheres.

O movimento tem ganhado força, outro exemplo é a exposição Radical Women — Latin American Art, 1960–1985 que chega em agosto a Pinacoteca de São Paulo. Ela exibe artes produzidas durante um contexto social e político de ser mulher nesses anos — debates sobre a violência contra a mulher, aborto e liberdade — feito por mulheres latino americanas e nascidas nos Estados Unidos com descendência latina.

“É preciso estar nua para estar no museu? Ela só entra se for modelo de um homem? A gente começa a perceber um outro viés da arte e um levantar feministas e principalmente a questão educacional, do que hoje a gente enxerga pela sua luta pela igualdade. Isso tá se propagando para fora de espaços onde a arte se concentra”, comenta o Mirarte.

Para fechar o trabalho, o coletivo apresentou uma arte performática. Consistia em cada integrante ler seus textos, poemas e outras formas de expressão, enquanto vestiam um colã bege, com o corpo pintado de vermelho. Depois, elas se lavavam com água que estava em uma bacia na sua frente. Tudo apoiado nas reflexões que os resultados do questionário trouxe ao grupo.

O último ciclo da pesquisa (Foto: Jeferson Denzin Barbato)

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