Número de mulheres em situação de rua cresceu 100% em 10 anos em Bauru

Elas representam 15% das pessoas que moram nas vias públicas e não recebem a devida assistência do poder público

Reportagem publicada em 17 de dezembro de 2017

Por Ana Carolina Moraes

“Pode entrar gente, a casa é simples, mas tá arrumadinha”. O convite foi feito por Daiane Galdino dos Santos, paranaense de 30 anos que está a seis em situação de rua. Há pouco tempo ela e o companheiro conseguiram ocupar uma construção pequena no centro da cidade e pararam de dormir nas marquises.

A realidade do casal é a de quem mora nas ruas: dependem de doações de se alimentarem durante o dia e fazem os corres para garantir algum trocado. Os dois saíram de Curitiba, no Paraná, rumo a São Paulo em 2011, por conta do desemprego na zona rural. O dinheiro para completar a viagem acabou na metade do caminho, e o casal ficou em Bauru. Nas ruas da cidade.

A maior cidade do centro-oeste paulista abriga pelo menos 390 pessoas em situação de rua, de acordo com os levantamento de prontuários ativos do Centro de Referência Especializado para População em Situação de Rua (Centro POP) do município. Deste total, 207 foram analisados e, dentro deste meio, apenas 32 são mulheres.

Os motivos para ir para as ruas são diversos, mas costumam partir do rompimento de vínculos — com a família, com as relações de trabalho ou com o próprio território. Para Daiane, o rompimento foi com esses três vínculos mencionados.

100% em 10

A reportagem Marias das Ruas identificou um déficit de políticas públicas direcionadas para as mulheres em situação de rua no Brasil. No geral, as políticas públicas para a população de rua atendem o grupo como um todo, desconsiderando os recortes. E em Bauru, está realidade não é diferente.

O Secretário Municipal do Bem Estar Social, José Augusto Fernandes, informou que não há políticas públicas específicas para as mulheres em situação de rua porque o número é pequeno — corresponde a 15% desta população.

Desde 2007, o número de moradoras de rua em Bauru cresceu 100%. Os dados são do Censo sobre População em Situação de Rua, e mostram que, em 2007, Bauru tinha 16 mulheres nas ruas; em 2017, de acordo com os dados de Centro Pop, elas são 32. O aumento da população de rua bauruense, no geral, foi de 61% no mesmo período.

Esse crescimento é um indicativo de que as mulheres em situação de rua precisam de mais atenção do poder público. Somado a este fator, tem-se ainda as especificidades do gênero, como a higiene íntima e a saúde feminina.

Daiane Galdino dos Santos está em situação de rua há 6 anos e afirma que é difícil ter acesso ao sistema de saúde sem ter um endereço fixo. Durante a entrevista, ela contou que, em uma briga, foi baleada nas costas e no joelho; a bala que recebeu nas costas, tinha se alojado na costela e foi retirada do corpo, mas a do joelho não. E continua lá até hoje, mesmo depois de passar por séries de consultas e exames.

Em meio as falas, uma tosse, um pigarro e um pedido de desculpas interrompiam os depoimentos. “É que eu tô gripada, mas eu já melhorei um pouquinho. Ontem eu não conseguia nem levantar da cama”, diz Daiane, que garante: “Amanhã eu vou no médico”.

Antes da “casa” que ela e o companheiro ocuparam, Daiane conta que os dois só ficavam na rua porque queriam ficar juntos. A cidade não conta com espaços de acolhimento para casais. E a falta deste tipo de serviço é uma das causas que favorecem a permanência das mulheres nas ruas. Isso porque o vínculo que elas estabelecem com os parceiros enquanto estão nas ruas podem ser de proteção e acolhimento. E ir para um abrigo cujo companheiro não será recebido significa romper mais esta relação.

Respaldo?

Bauru conta com cinco programas que atendem a população de rua: dois executados diretamente pelo poder público, três conveniados. O Centro Pop é o único programa de acolhimento público da cidade aberto para homens e mulheres. O espaço recebe, de acordo com a Secretaria Municipal do Bem Estar Social, uma média de 50 pessoas por dia e oferece espaços para descanso, higiene e alimentação.

Os três programas conveniados são Casas de Passagem, que oferecem acolhimento noturno às pessoas em situação de rua. O Esquadrão da Vida acolhe homens com mais de 18 anos; já a casa de passagem Bom Pastor é destinada para mulheres ou grupo familiar em situação de risco (mulheres e crianças). O Albergue Noturno, por fim, abriga homens e mulheres, a estrutura conta com quartos separados para cada gênero e um espaço para famílias com crianças; ainda assim casais sem filhos que buscam passar a noite no local podem ser separados e dormirem em quartos separados.

O outro serviço público de Bauru é a Abordagem Social, que consiste na aproximação de um equipe da Secretaria do Bem Estar Social (SEBES) às pessoas em situação de rua que não conhecem ou participam dos demais programas disponibilizados no município. A equipe atua no período da noite e faz busca-ativas pela cidade.

Por conta do contato direto com a população de rua que não participa dos programas da cidade, o grupo da Abordagem Social acompanha também as violações e violências contras as mulheres nesta condição. Durante a rotina de abordagens aos moradores de rua, a equipe coordenada pelo psicólogo Vitor Biscaro confirmou já ter presenciado várias cenas de agressões de mulheres em situação de rua, mas não sabia de casos em que a vítima tinha denunciado o agressor.

Mesmo com os programas, as mulheres ficam expostas às violências nas ruas. Cabe aqui mencionar que, conforme apresentado na reportagem Marias das Ruas, a situação de rua não é uma escolha — em qualquer contexto. Quanto uma mulher nesta condição sofre violência física, por exemplo, o fato de ela não ser domiciliada permite que a vítima esteja vulnerável para outras violências simbólicas, como o atendimento para registro de B.O. nas Delegacias, a falta de respaldo no acompanhamento destes casos e o risco de sofrer uma nova violência nas vias públicas. São em situações como essa que a ausência de políticas públicas específicas para o gênero se manifestam.

Bora ajudar as minas?

Cerca de 50 kits foram distribuídos para mulheres em situação de rua em Bauru. (Natália Mota/ Arquivo pessoal)

 

A carência de políticas públicas específicas para as moradoras de rua mobilizou um grupo de mulheres para doar kits de higiene básica e íntima para elas.

Toda a organização aconteceu via redes sociais. Produtos como creme dental, escova de dente, desodorante e absorventes foram arrecadados por doações. Teve ainda quem se disponibilizou para confeccionar as bolsas para guardar os itens.

A entrega aconteceu no domingo, 17 de dezembro, em diferentes em áreas públicas como a Estação Ferroviária, a praças e nas redondezas da Rodoviária. Durante a semana, mulheres que são usuárias do Centro POP também receberam os kits.


 

Erramos: O nome da psicóloga do Centro POP de Bauru é Jane Estela e não Jane Rodrigues dos Santos, como publicado anteriormente. O texto foi atualizado às 16h41.

Atualizações: Todas as falas da psicóloga do Centro POP de Bauru, Jane Estela, neste texto foram reproduzidas da reportagem Marias das Ruas. A mesma pediu para que os fragmentos fossem retirados da matéria.

Incluímos mais informações sobre os serviços ofertados para a população de rua em Bauru, indicamos que os dados do infográfico são referentes aos atendimentos até setembro de 2017 e colocamos a quantidade de kits de higiene que foram arrecadados divulgada pela organização.

Todas as mudanças foram feitas no dia 23 de dezembro, às 16h45.

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