Estudante de Bauru lança manual por um jornalismo sem preconceito religioso

Felipe Monteiro apresenta o “Minimanual do Jornalismo Humanizado – Parte VIII: Orixás na Umbanda” como trabalho de conclusão do curso de Jornalismo na Unesp 

Publicado em 30 de maio de 2019

Por Bibiana Garrido

Está no ar mais um minimanual do Jornalismo Humanizado, e desta vez não lançado por comunicadores das capitais. Um morador e estudante bauruense tomou a iniciativa em defesa do respeito na comunicação com as religiões afro-brasileiras. Felipe Monteiro é umbandista de nascença e por observar coberturas midiáticas que tratam essas manifestações como “charlatanismo”, além do preconceito, intolerância e discursos de ódio que culminam em ataques a terreiros e religiosos,  ele resolveu investir na pesquisa para consolidar o trabalho.

“Ao longo do século XX, a Umbanda se desenvolveu e passou de uma situação de extrema marginalização, para integrar um movimento de inclusão que permitiu o início de uma frágil aceitação social”, escreve Felipe. “Sua história é permeada por um passado de opressão e de resistência por parte de um povo composto por negros, migrantes e imigrantes pertencentes à classe trabalhadora, que encontra na religião um meio de amparo para as labutas diárias”.

O minimanual é um documento que tem como objetivo orientar a redação jornalística sobre determinado assunto. Notícias envolvendo terreiros de umbanda e candomblé podem, por exemplo, se referir ao culto religioso como “macumba”, palavra equivocada para falar da louvação aos orixás. Macumba é uma espécie de árvore africana e também um instrumento musical. 

Da expressão “chuta que é macumba”, ela surge da violência com oferendas preparadas por umbandistas e candomblecistas. Segundo as especificidades de cada religião e cada terreiro, fiéis podem acender velas, levar flores e objetos como forma de agradecimento e pedido de proteção, nos “pontos de força” de cada orixá: a rua, o rio, o mar, a floresta, entre outros.

"Orixás", de Pierre Fatumbi Verger, franco-brasileiro, fotógrafo e estudioso do Candomblé (Foto: Bibiana Garrido/Jornal Dois)

E nem só no jornalismo perduram as referências estereotipadas das religiões de matriz afro. Recentemente, a novela “Segundo Sol” da Globo mostrava a personagem Laureta, vilã interpretada por Adriana Esteves, que conseguia fazer suas maldades por oferecer agrados às entidades espirituais. Praticantes se revoltaram nas redes sociais e se colocaram contra o “desserviço” da emissora.

“Atribuindo-lhe caráteres de banalidades e seculares, desconsiderando o sagrado da religião, depreciando a cultura dos Orixás e das comunidades umbandistas”, coloca Felipe, “é possível identificar diversos veículos midiáticos construindo notícias com elementos da Umbanda em caráter de esoterismo”.

Para construir o livro, Felipe conversou com frequentadores e membros de terreiros da cidade. O estudante irá apresentar, no mês que vem, o “Minimanual do Jornalismo Humanizado – Parte VIII: Orixás na Umbanda” como trabalho de conclusão do curso de Jornalismo na Unesp, câmpus de Bauru. O PDF já está disponível para download no link destacado.

O trabalho é destinado a qualquer pessoa que queira se comunicar livre de preconceitos e estigmas contra as religiões de culto afro e afro-brasileiro. “Com a ascensão ao poder de grupos racistas e intolerantes”, comenta o autor, “um novo cenário de lutas e resistência surge, e com ele, necessidades de criação, fomento e manutenção de meios que propaguem a cultura afro-brasileira, seus símbolos, cultos e a defesa dos direitos humanos”. 

A publicação é a oitava de seu tipo: as sete anteriores foram criadas pelo grupo Think Olga, que inspirou Felipe a dar continuidade à série de minimanuais. Em 2016, para evitar erros jornalísticos em reportagens sobre violência contra a mulher, foi lançado o primeiro “Minimanual do Jornalismo Humanizado – Parte I: Violência Contra a Mulher”. Todas as edições estão disponíveis para consulta e download aqui

"Exu é o começo, atravessa o avesso. Exu é o travesso que traça o final", diz a letra de Serena Assumpção no álbum Ascensão, dedicado aos orixás (Foto: Bibiana Garrido/Jornal Dois)

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