Guerra às drogas: uma mentira

É preciso colocar em discussão a nossa atual política de combate ao tráfico de entorpecentes

Coluna publicada em 17 de maio de 2018

 

“A Intervenção Militar no Rio de Janeiro, alegando buscar combater o crime organizado, poupou territórios de milícias” (Foto: Reprodução/Latuff)

Por Arthur Castro, colunista do JORNAL DOIS


Nos últimos anos, vimos inúmeros países mudarem suas posturas sobre esse assunto. Nos Estados Unidos (falaremos mais sobre ele) testemunhamos em várias partes de seu território a legalização do uso recreativo da maconha, e demonstrando que essa nova posição traz uma redução na violência urbana. Outros governos que permitem a utilização desta droga incluem o Uruguai (que também teve uma queda nos índices de criminalidade), Suíça, Canadá, Chile, Espanha e até a misteriosa Coreia do Norte.

Portugal foi além e não apenas descriminalizou TODAS as drogas, como já discute iniciar a legalização de pelo menos a maconha para fins medicinais.

Mas para entender melhor essa situação toda, precisamos voltar no tempo, para o início da preocupação com as “drogas”.

Deus abençoe a América

As origens da “Guerra às Drogas” nos levam até o início do século XX, nos Estados Unidos da América.

A maconha era uma substância muito popular entre setores marginalizados da sociedade, em especial imigrantes mexicanos, e por isso era alvo de preconceito em uma época altamente conservadora. O discurso proibicionista, então, era altamente ligado à xenofobia e ao racismo.

Essa planta pertence a família Cannabis, da qual faz parte uma outra, o cânhamo, utilizado para uma diversidade de produtos, de roupas a xampus. Uma ameaça direta aos interesses econômicos de uma das maiores corporações do mundo, a DuPont, que engloba áreas de química. nutrição e eletrônica. Isso levou a empresa a utilizar-se do preconceito existente para pressionar pela proibição de toda a família Cannabis e preservar seus interesses. Vemos algo semelhante hoje, quando setores da indústria farmacêutica patrocinam campanhas contra a legalização por temer que o uso medicinal da maconha prejudique seus negócios.

Não demorou para que o combate à maconha se estendesse e valesse para outras drogas. A criminalização do álcool, que ocorrera anos antes, gerou um crime organizado liderado por Al Capone. O surgimento do tráfico de drogas também levou à criação de novas drogas, cada vez mais pesadas, dentro da lógica de lucro capitalista.

No entanto, foi após décadas, sob o Governo Nixon, de direita republicana, que a “Guerra às Drogas” começou a crescer. Os EUA haviam invadido o Vietnã, e a situação ficava cada vez mais complicada com grandes atos de esquerda contra a ofensiva imperialista. Ao mesmo tempo, movimentos negros marchavam pelas ruas denunciando o racismo no país. Nesse contexto, os Conservadores viram no enfrentamento à maconha a desculpa ideal para repressão ampla contra a população.

John Ehrlichman, conselheiro para Assuntos Internos de Nixon, afirmou:

“A campanha Nixon em 1968, e depois a administração Nixon na Casa Branca, tinham dois inimigos: a esquerda antiguerra e a população negra. Compreende? Sabíamos que não podíamos ilegalizar o ser-se contra a guerra ou negro, mas ao associarmos os hippies com a marijuana e os negros com a heroína, e criminalizando-os duramente em seguida, poderíamos desfazer essas comunidades. Podíamos prender os seus líderes, fazer buscas às suas casas, interromper as suas reuniões e difamá-los todas as noites nos noticiários. Se sabíamos que estávamos a mentir sobre as drogas? Claro que sabíamos.”

O documentário “A 13ª Emenda”, disponível na Netflix, mostra como se desenvolve uma política de encarceramento em massa da população negra norte-americana, que gera grandes lucros para empresas ligadas à repressão.

Os Estados Unidos também utilizaram esse pretexto para intervenções em países alheios, como Panamá. Apesar disso, não foram poucas as situações nas quais o Imperialismo norte-americano ativamente se relacionou com o tráfico internacional. Há relatos de histórias, antigas e recentes, envolvendo Afeganistão, Colômbia, México e Nicarágua.

Guerra às drogas no mundo

O conflito inevitavelmente levou a uma escalada mundial. As facções criminosas se armaram em peso, assim como as forças militares e policiais. Hoje, principalmente na América Latina, milhares morrem por causa dessa guerra.

No México, vemos uma batalha intensa entre os diversos Cartéis, o Exército e Milícias. A violência só aumenta, e vários políticos e membros do governo tem envolvimento direto com traficantes. Um caso que chocou o país ocorreu quando um prefeito, ligado ao narcotráfico, ordenou o assassinato de 43 estudantes que protestavam.

Na Colômbia, as facções do tráfico se relacionavam diretamente ao conflito entre direita e esquerda. Ao contrário do que a mídia faz querer parecer, não só as FARCs, de origem comunista, mantinham conexões com o comércio de drogas, mas também as Autodefesas, milícias de extrema direita ligadas ao latifúndio. A série da Netflix “Narcos”, apesar de algumas licenças artísticas, ajuda a mostrar a dinâmica do conflito colombiano.

Uma escalada recente de violência vem ocorrendo nas Filipinas, onde o ex-policial e atual presidente, Rodrigo Duterte, deu passe livre para as polícias assassinarem. Na Indonésia e na China, há pena de morte, e o novo presidente de direita dos EUA, Donald Trump, promete querer seguir esse caminho.

Guerra às drogas no Brasil

No nosso país, a situação não é diferente. Somos um dos que possui maior população carcerária do mundo, que continua a crescer. Há um poderoso lobby para a privatização dos presídios, o que tornaria esse triste fato ainda mais lucrativo.

Temos a polícia que mais mata e somos campeões em homicídios: 60 mil ao ano. Isso são números de países em guerra. A maior parte dos crimes é relacionado ao tráfico de drogas, incluindo também roubos, furtos e porte ilegal de armas.

Além de traficantes estarem ligados a setores poderosos da sociedade, incluindo pessoas com poder econômico e político, vemos o crescimento de milícias principalmente nas favelas cariocas. O argumento dos milicianos é o de “proteger” os civis contra o tráfico, e são protegidos pela Bancada da Bala e por nomes da extrema direita, como Jair Bolsonaro (PSL). Aliás, Bolsonaro, que hoje lidera as pesquisas de intenção de voto, quer seguir o exemplo filipino e autorizar a polícia a matar impunemente.

Vemos que a Guerra às Drogas em nosso país, assim como no resto do mundo, caminha para o desastre. A Intervenção Militar no Rio de Janeiro, alegando buscar combater o crime organizado, não deu resultados. Ao contrário, poupou territórios de milícias, limpando o território de algumas facções e permitindo que outras o ocupem.

Se os candidatos de direita, incluindo Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB), Flávio Rocha (PRB) e Rodrigo Maia (DEM), prometem uma escalada no conflito, o centro e a esquerda não possuem alternativa melhor. Não há indícios que uma candidatura do PT ou de Ciro Gomes (PDT) afrouxem essa guerra, apesar da retórica, e o mesmo vale para Marina Silva (Rede).

Enquanto mantivermos essa política conservadora, criada pelo racismo e pela ganância do sistema capitalista, ainda veremos muitos mortos vítimas de uma guerra perdida e inútil.

Carl Hart, neurocientista, quando veio ao Brasil, disse, em evento com Drauzio Varella: “Acho ofensivo vocês brasileiros chamarem as cenas de uso de cracolândia. Passa a ideia de que tudo o que acontece lá é por culpa do crack. E não é. O que está acontecendo lá é desespero, é racismo, é pobreza. O crack não cria a pobreza”.


 

As colunas são um espaço de opinião. As posições e argumentos expressas neste espaço não necessariamente refletem o ponto de vista do JORNAL DOIS.

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