“Espaço público é o que nos resta”: a importância e atuação dos Conselhos Municipais

CMs de Bauru se reuniram no último sábado (9) para articulação; a frase, da psicóloga e conselheira Orlene Daré, resume o tom da conversa e aponta para a ocupação desses espaços

Reportagem publicada em 13 de junho de 2018

Por Bibiana Garrido

O Conselho Regional de Psicologia de São Paulo (CRP-SP) — Subsede Bauru recebeu membros dos Conselhos Municipais, de movimentos sociais e da sociedade civil para a palestra “A importância e o Papel dos Conselhos Municipais no Atual Momento”, realizada na manhã do dia 9 de junho. A articulação entre os grupos foi um dos pontos principais da discussão.

Com apresentação de Edson Neves Terra Júnior, psicólogo e coordenador do Centro de Referência Especializados de Assistência Social (CREAS), a palestra levantou dados sobre a atuação dos CMs e teve como objetivo possibilitar a aproximação entre os conselheiros de Bauru.

“Para esta reunião foi disparado convite para todos os Conselhos, exatamente porque as novas gestões estão se iniciando”, explica Orlene Daré, psicóloga que integra o CRP-SP, vice-presidente do Conselho Municipal de Direitos Humanos na gestão 2016–2018. “Então vamos fazer alguma coisa que dê ponto de referência para quem tá começando, e é referência política”.

Na composição dos CMs, a participação de representantes da sociedade civil é obrigatória (Foto: “Mas, o que é um Conselho Municipal?”/Reprodução)

O que faz um Conselho e quem pode participar?

É como se a gente estendesse uma ponte entre a sociedade civil, os movimentos sociais e poder público, para entender e captar demandas da população, fiscalizar a ação dos governos.

Essas tarefas dão aos conselheiros um conhecimento sobre o que acontece na cidade e fornecem condições para desenvolver propostas de melhoria nas condições de vida das pessoas em situação de vulnerabilidade social e econômica.

“Lutamos muito pela ampliação e pela aplicação das políticas públicas”, afirma Orlene Daré. “Nós temos ainda uma democracia e podemos lutar por ela nessas instâncias, com ações pautadas na laicidade, na perspectiva da luta antimanicomial e contra o fundamentalismo”.

Isso acontece no Brasil todo?

São cerca de 27 mil Conselhos Municipais em exercício no país, de acordo com dados de 2012 do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). Se temos 5.570 municípios em território nacional, ficaríamos com mais ou menos cinco Conselhos Municipais para cada um deles.

“99% dos municípios brasileiros têm Conselhos de Políticas Públicas, de Saúde, Educação e Assistência Social. Os de Segurança, da Pessoa Idosa, de Cultura e de Meio-ambiente estão presentes em mais de 50% dos municípios”, aponta Edson Neves, palestrante na ocasião. “Outros, como da Segurança Alimentar, de Direitos da Pessoa com Deficiência e Diretos da Mulher são criados em ritmo crescente e ultrapassam 30% dos municípios”.

Integrantes dos Conselhos Municipais de Bauru, movimentos sociais e membros da sociedade civil se reúnem no CRP-SP; ao centro está Orlene Maré, psicóloga organizadora do evento, e ao seu lado, Edson Neves, palestrante (Foto: Bibiana Garrido/JORNAL DOIS)

A composição desses espaços a nível nacional é destacada por Edson: 66% dos conselheiros se declaram brancos, do sexo masculino, 16% se declaram pardos e 13%, pretos. “Há uma tendência mais heterogênea nos Conselhos de Direitos”, avalia o psicólogo sobre a “questão contraditória nesses espaços de participação”.

Em Bauru, existem 28 Conselhos Municipais e você pode ver a lista deles aqui. As reuniões ordinárias são abertas à população.

E o que tá pegando?

“O quanto esses espaços são democráticos? O Conselho Municipal não é um espaço passivo, simplesmente dado pela Constituição. Ele precisa ser construído”.
— Edson Neves

A representatividade é colocada como um dos principais desafios para os CMs. “Nos Conselhos existe uma certa crise nessa representatividade, porque quem nos indica? Realmente eu represento a minha base? As pessoas da nossa sociedade se sentem representadas por mim?”, reflete Edson sobre a composição dos espaços. Os interesses pessoais e coletivos também são pontos importantes da discussão: um conselheiro deve se pautar pela coletividade.

Para Clodoaldo Meneguello, presidente do Conselho Municipal de Diretos Humanos na gestão 2016–2018, essas situações fazem parte de problemas conjunturais. “Há problemas estruturais de esvaziamento. Por que os Conselhos tem essa imagem de ser um braço do poder público?”, questiona.

Conselheiros e conselheiras devem apresentar e representar os interesses e as demandas da sociedade (Foto: Bibiana Garrido/JORNAL DOIS)

Outro desafio para a atuação dos CMs está na intersetorialidade: da relação entre diferentes instâncias da sociedade e do poder público pode surgir a interferência política e a falta de recursos.

Quando políticas sociais são concebidas como gastos públicos, “há uma ideologia de que o Brasil está numa crise econômica e que isso justificaria os cortes públicos voltados a essas políticas”, argumenta o palestrante.

Dá para melhorar?

Marcos Gomide, presidente do Conselho Municipal de Transparência e Controle Social, ressalta a importância da ocupação da Casa dos Conselhos de Bauru. “Temos feito as tentativas de buscar um ambiente adequado para receber todos os Conselhos do município, só que tem uma dificuldade muito grande que vem do embate com o poder público”, diz.

Espaço para realização de reuniões e eventos dos Conselhos Municipais, a Casa dos Conselhos já teve outros endereços, mas atualmente está localizada na Rua Dr. Antônio Prudente, 1–148.

A mobilização para alcançar maior participação popular foi mencionada pelos conselheiros diversas vezes no encontro, além da necessidade de maior contato entre os CMs.

“Os Conselhos fazem ações estanques e que a população não participa”, comenta Kátia Valérya, presidente do Conselho Municipal de Direitos Humanos, gestão 2018–2020. Clodoaldo, da gestão passada do CMDH, lembra iniciativas que foram tomadas e que poderiam ser uma forma para buscar essa aproximação: as reuniões temáticas abertas à população e as reuniões itinerantes, que foram realizadas nos bairros.

“Espaço público é o que nos resta. Se é um espaço público, você tem que convidar todos”, defende Orlene Daré, psicóloga e conselheira. “É o cidadão que tem que estar aqui discutindo e decidindo políticas de seu interesse”.

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