Entenda o conflito trabalhista que atinge a coleta de lixo em Bauru

Indefinição na carga horária dos servidores que trabalham na coleta causa indignação; situação se arrasta desde 2009

Reportagem publicada em 14 de janeiro de 2018

Trabalhadores afirmam não confiar mais na Emdurb para negociar (Foto: Reprodução/Reporter Unesp)
Por Lorenzo Santiago

No começo do ano motoristas e coletores de lixo da cidade de Bauru paralisaram seus trabalhos durante metade do dia. Era dia dois de janeiro e a cidade ainda sentia o rebote da virada de ano. A paralisação ocorreu após Luiz Eduardo Penteado Borgo, diretor de Limpeza Pública, afirmar em uma rádio da cidade que “quem não se adequar às normas da empresa será mandado embora”. A declaração do diretor da Empresa Municipal de Desenvolvimento Urbano e Rural de Bauru (Emdurb) foi recebida pelos trabalhadores como uma ameaça.

O que está em jogo?

O conflito se iniciou devido ao aumento na carga horária dos funcionários que fazem a coleta de lixo na cidade de seis para oito horas por dia. A proposta da Emdurb é reduzir o número de funcionários deste serviço para poupar gastos. Cada caminhão contava com quatro funcionários. Com o aumento na carga horária, passariam a ser três. O aumento da carga horária não seria acompanhado de aumento salarial. Nada foi definido até o momento.

Onde tudo começou?

Até 2009 o regime de trabalho funcionava por meio de um acordo feito entre a Emdurb e o Sindicato dos Servidores Públicos Municipais de Bauru e Região (Sinserm). Ele previa que a carga horária dos servidores diminuísse de oito horas por dia para seis horas diárias. Isso porque os trabalhadores tinham problemas de assadura e excesso de cansaço devido ao grande esforço físico do trabalho. Com a redução na carga horária, a Emdurb abriu vagas para coletores.

Na época, os funcionários que trabalhavam a noite passaram para o período diurno, enquanto todos os novos contratados ficaram no período noturno. O problema é que esses novos servidores da noite tinham uma jornada de oito horas de trabalho. O salário para todos os funcionários era o mesmo.

Diante dessa situação, o Sinserm pressionou a Emdurb na metade de 2009, não aceitando essa diferença na carga do trabalho dos funcionários. O Ministério do Trabalho foi acionado e convocou uma reunião entre Emdurb e os trabalhadores, na qual ficou definida a carga de seis horas diárias, com exceção da segunda e terça feira. Para ambas as partes envolvidas, nestes dias a quantidade de lixo é maior.

Ficou definido que seria possível estender o trabalho dos coletores em até duas horas nestes dias sem receber horas extras. O acordo previa que essas horas trabalhadas a mais poderiam ser compensadas. Se o coletor precisasse faltar um dia ele poderia faltar desde que tivesse seis horas extras acumuladas. A Emdurb definiu que entre quarta e sábado motoristas e coletores poderiam ter o trabalho estendido em uma hora. Caso essas horas fossem usadas pelo trabalhador, se tornava um crédito, ou se revertia em salários de horas extras. Esse sistema é chamado de banco de horas, no qual todas as horas trabalhadas a mais são guardadas para serem usadas pelos funcionários como folga.

O acordo não precisou ser cumprido porque as equipes não precisavam trabalhar mais do que seis horas. As coletas davam conta do trabalho dentro período estabelecido até nas segundas e terças-feiras.

O acordo deveria ser definitivo, mas ano após ano, o compromisso foi renovado entre o sindicato e Emdurb. As partes chegam a um consenso e firmam acordo que foi homologado no Ministério do Trabalho. O problema é que desde março de 2017 esse acordo não é renovado e não há uma discussão entre a administração pública e os trabalhadores. Os servidores ainda aguardam por uma reunião.

Fator decisivo

O que gerou uma mudança no regime de trabalho dos motoristas e coletores foi o fechamento do aterro sanitário de Bauru. Segundo a Companhia de Tecnologia e Saneamento Ambiental do Estado (Cetesb), o aterro de Bauru não comportava mais resíduos sólidos. Todo o lixo de Bauru passou a ser depositado no aterro de Piratininga.

Antigo aterro sanitário de Bauru já havia esgotado a capacidade em 2015, segundo a Cetesb (Foto: Bibiana Garrido/JORNAL DOIS)

A mudança afeta diretamente no trabalho dos coletores. Eles afirmam que esta alteração reflete nas horas trabalhadas e na efetividade da coleta. “Nosso trabalho fica muito maior. A gente demorava 40 minutos pra menos quando ia despejar o lixo. Agora a gente tá demorando 1h30 quase 2h só pra levar o lixo. É fila, pedágio, balança…. Demora muito mais do que antes”, explica um servidor que não quis se identificar.

A segunda polêmica foi a escolha do local. Valdecir Rosa, dirigente do Sinserm e coletor explica que “apesar de a Cetesb ter decretado o fim da vida útil do aterro de Bauru, ao lado deste aterro tem um terreno propício para a construção de um novo depósito de lixo. Mas nunca a prefeitura ou a Cetesb quiseram liberar essa área, algo que é estranho”.

Para a Emdurb, a alteração seria uma forma de economizar gastos. Os trabalhadores questionam que, se a ideia é reduzir os gastos, a mudança de aterro só aumenta o custo da coleta. Desgaste de pneus, pedágio e gasolina são alguns dos fatores que encarecem o preço da viagem para descarregar o lixo coletado.

Segundo o dirigente da Sinserm, o aumento da carga horária não passou por discussão prévia. “O prefeito Clodoaldo Gazzetta e Elizeu Eclair, presidente da Emdurb, começaram a ameaçar os trabalhadores no final do ano passado, querendo estender a jornada dos coletores e motoristas para 40 horas semanais e não mais 36. O mais estranho é que a campanha do prefeito sempre prezou pelo diálogo”, diz.

Após o retorno ao trabalho no dia dois de janeiro, a Emdurb emitiu uma nota classificando a paralisação como ilegítima, por não ter sido avisada com antecedência. Segundo a legislação, a paralisação e o direito a greve são garantidos a todos os trabalhadores. Em greves ou paralisações é necessário se fazer o aviso prévio com 48 horas de antecedência, alertando a data e horário de início. No caso da coleta de lixo, é necessário que se mantenha o funcionamento do serviço durante o dia, com no mínimo 30% dos funcionários trabalhando.

Após este cenário, ficou decidido que durante os próximos seis meses os trabalhadores continuam com contrato da forma que estava acontecendo desde 2009.

A coleta voltou ao normal no mesmo dia da paralisação e a resolução dos problemas foi adiada. Motoristas e coletores de lixo de Bauru continuam esperando a renovação no contrato como é feito anualmente.

Até a postagem da reportagem, a Emdurb não respondeu às tentativas de contato.

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