Projeto de Escola Integral é recusado pelo Conselho Escolar do Stela Machado

Acusado de aumentar a exclusão social dentro do sistema público de educação o projeto gera debate por todo o estado

Publicado em 31 de Agosto de 2019

Charge de um estudante do 9º ano da rede pública de ensino - (Colagem: Letícia Sartori/JORNALDOIS sob Charge: APEOESP-SUBSEDE BAURU/DIVULGAÇÃO)
Por Letícia Sartori

Decidir os rumos de uma escola não é tarefa fácil. O processo envolve alunos, pais, professores e a comunidade escolar como um todo. Na última quarta-feira, 28 de agosto, o Conselho da E.E. Stela Machado, na Zona Oeste bauruense, votou contra a implementação do Programa Ensino Integral (PEI), proposto pelo Governo do Estado de São Paulo.
O projeto, além de extinguir classes noturnas, prevê aulas e atividades escolares para alunos durante a parte da manhã e da tarde. O que na teoria se vende como uma boa ideia na prática tem se mostrado uma política excludente.

A escola e o território

O pesquisador, geógrafo e professor Milton Santos coloca em seu livro O Espaço do Cidadão que “Há desigualdades sociais que são, em primeiro lugar, desigualdades territoriais, porque derivam do lugar onde cada qual se encontra. Seu tratamento não pode ser alheio às realidades territoriais. O cidadão é o indivíduo num lugar.”. Há, portanto, que se pensar o exercício da cidadania de maneira intrínseca ao território que o indivíduo ocupa.

Trazendo para a realidade bauruense é criticamente pensar como o PEI influenciaria toda a comunidade escolar da Zona Oeste da cidade, onde a E.E. Stela Machado se situa. Como coloca Eduardo Piotto, agente penitenciário e pai de uma estudante do 1º ano do Stela “no caso minha filha, ela já foi afetada porque estudava no Cristino Cabral, teve que ir pro Ernesto Monte e agora que começou a trabalhar teve que vir pro Stela”.

A E.E. Cristino Cabral, situada na Zona Sul de Bauru adotou o Projeto de Ensino Integral em 2018. Desmantelando o ensino fundamental, que foi remanejado a E.E. Ernesto Monte e fechando as classes de ensino médio no período noturno. O JORNAL DOIS acompanhou o processo de integralização do Cristino Cabral, marcado por protestos da comunidade escolar e o remanejamento de cerca de 1000 alunos.

“Falaram para a diretora da escola que eles (os alunos) provavelmente seriam mandados para E.E. Luiz Zuiani, que fica do outro lado da cidade. Então alunos da Zona Oeste da cidade seriam mandados pra zona leste, pra você ter noção da distância” menciona Piotto.

E faz uma crítica a maneira como a discussão sobre o PEI foi conduzida no Stela: “Uma comunicação falha. Se eles querem trazer professores para falar bem (da proposta) deveriam ouvir os alunos que foram prejudicados com a integralidade dos estudos, como os Cristino Cabral por exemplo”.

 (Filmagem e edição: Bibiana Garrido/JORNAL DOIS)

Na época da integralização do Christino Cabral entrevistamos a professora e membro da Diretoria da Associação de Professores do Ensino Oficial do Estado de São Paulo (APEOESP-SUBSEDE BAURU) Tathiane Nunes sobre o projeto.

(Filmagem e edição: Lorenzo Santiago/JORNALDOIS)

DESDOBRAMENTOS DO PEI

Girotto e Cássio analisam em sua pesquisa “A Desigualdade é a Meta: Implicações Socioespaciais do Programa Ensino Integral na Cidade de São Paulo” que há um projeto político vigente que visa ampliar “a concepção de educação como privilégio, reafirmando a lógica dual da escola pública brasileira: uma escola de excelência para poucos; uma escola de contenção social para a maioria”.

A aprovação do Projeto de Ensino Integral na E.E. Cristino Cabral acabou por superlotar a E.E. Ernesto Monte. Após a integralização os alunos que não se adaptaram ao modelo integral, estudantes do ensino fundamental e do período noturno foram transferidos para o Ernesto Monte. De 807 alunos em 2017 para 1158 em 2019. Sem que qualquer repasse de fundos, profissionais ou estrutura fossem disponibilizados pela Secretaria de Educação.

Acompanhamos os desdobramentos da situação do Ernesto Monte:

(Filmagem e edição: Lucas Mendes/JORNALDOIS)

RESISTÊNCIA NA ZO

De volta a zona oeste é necessário resgatar o processo histórico que formou a comunidade escolar do Stela Machado. Pivô das ocupações escolares contra a Reforma do Ensino Médio em 2015 e 2016, sendo a primeira escola ocupada de Bauru; estudantes, pais e professores do Stela Machado não são alheios ao debate político e ações diretas contra ataques ao sistema de ensino.

Marcos Chagas é professor de sociologia, membro da APEOESP, leciona no Stela há oito anos e relembra “Desde 2014 há movimentos dentro da escola cobrando melhorias, de alunos e professores; 2015 também para além da ocupação tiveram uma série de manifestações puxadas pelos alunos daqui e também de outras escolas; então tem todo um histórico de participação e envolvimento dos alunos, dos professores e nesse momento (de discussão da do PEI) acho que também foi significativo.”.

Ailton Aguiar, mecânico, pai de um aluno do 7º do Stela Machado e membro do Conselho da escola há 3 anos pondera que “A notícia da integralização veio de forma brutal pra cima dos alunos.” Ele coloca que “Se não fosse o engajamento da comunidade, do conselho, dos pais a gente nunca chegaria numa votação dessa.”

Para Aílton, que comemorou a decisão do conselho de se colocar contra o Projeto de Escola Integral, o resultado já era esperado “É o anseio da comunidade, dos jovens, dos pais de barrar esse projeto. E querendo ou não mexe com todos, especialmente com aquele jovem que estuda de manhã e trabalha, faz seu curso técnico em outro período. Ou o jovem que trabalha o dia inteiro e trabalha a noite.

O LADO B

A pesquisa “A Desigualdade é a Meta: Implicações Socioespaciais do Programa Ensino Integral na Cidade de São Paulo”, publicada em 2018 na Revista Acadêmica Arquivos Analíticos de Políticas Educativas (AAPE), demonstra com a aplicação do PEI acaba por criar “ilhas de excelência em um mar de fracasso escolar e evasão”. Uma vez que o projeto de escola integral favorece alunos com um nível sócio econômico maior do que a média dos estudantes da rede pública e tira das escolas alunos que precisam trabalhar e estudar ao mesmo tempo.

Como colocam os professores Eduardo Girotto e Fernando Cássio, autores da pesquisa, “em um contexto de grave crise econômica, conjuntural e estrutural, com taxas crescentes de desemprego e desigualdade, quais sujeitos terão condições objetivas de optar pela escola de tempo integral?”.

E continuam “Em nossa perspectiva, a garantia do direito à educação se expressa na liberdade concreta de escolha dos sujeitos em relação ao acesso à unidade escolar, bem como na garantia de permanência e de apropriação dos conhecimentos”.

Faixas de protesto nos muros E.E. Stela Machado durante a reunião do conselho escolar (Colagem: Letícia Sartori/JORNALDOIS sob Foto: Tauan Mateus)

O X DA QUESTÃO

O Professor Marcos Chagas avalia que o governo está criando uma propaganda com a o projeto de escola integral.

Como membro da APEOESP, Marcos reforça que o sindicato dos professores tem uma pauta extensa e antiga sobre como melhorar a educação pública paulista. “Isso passa por melhores salários para professores, escolas melhor estruturadas, condições de segurança nas escolas e uma série de mudanças que a gente vem cobrando do Estado. Entendemos que nós vivemos o problema e propomos uma solução. E nenhuma dessas propostas passa por ser Integral”, sugere.

Implementações específicas do PEI colocam em cheque escolas periféricas que ficam com a responsabilidade de receber alunos expulsos de escolas integrais. No caso de Bauru isso aconteceu sem que houvesse, no entanto, um retorno financeiro para aumento de seu quadro de funcionários e infraestrutura, como a E.E. Ernesto Monte. Como coloca Eduardo Piotto: “Hoje com a aprovação da emenda constitucional do congelamento de gastos públicos por mais que o governo prometa que vá haver investimento na educação e na qualidade do ensino, não vai haver dinheiro pra isso. Os gastos estão congelados.”.

Os professores Eduardo Girotto e Fernando Cassio fazem uma crítica a influencia social do PEI: “pesquisas sugerem que estamos diante de uma política educacional que contribui para a ampliação das desigualdades educacionais e socioespaciais no estado. Trata-se não apenas da constatação da desigualdade na educação pública paulista, ou de que essa desigualdade é influenciada pelas desigualdades territoriais, mas do entendimento de que, no limite, o Estado tem se destacado como o seu principal (re)produtor”.

E concluem sua pesquisa com o seguinte questionamento:
“As políticas públicas de educação parecem tomar como natural a produção de uma escola pública que exclui os estudantes mais pobres, (re)produzindo desigualdades educacionais e socioespaciais. Seria este apenas um equívoco na execução das políticas ou, no limite, a desigualdade é a meta?”

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