Quem tem medo da política de cotas?

Em vigor desde 2012, Lei de Cotas será rediscutida pelo Congresso Nacional em 2022 

Publicado em 25 de novembro de 2021

Encabeçada pelo movimento negro, Lei de Cotas possibilitou o acesso de pessoas negras e de baixa renda às universidades (Foto: Manifestação pela fundação do Movimento Negro Unificado em 1978/Jesus Carlos)
Por Coletivo Afronte Bauru

Sancionada em 2012, a Lei de Cotas nas instituições federais será revista no próximo ano, e pode ser extinta, caso não seja renovada pelo Congresso.

 

No Brasil desgovernado por Bolsonaro, não nos surpreende a possibilidade de um amplo setor se colocar contra essa lei que foi, sem dúvidas, uma das políticas mais progressivas do último período. Encabeçada pelo movimento negro, a mobilização pelas cotas colocou sob os holofotes o caráter racista e elitista de uma instituição fundamental no país: a universidade pública. Este não é um feito pequeno. Muito menos simples. Afinal, aos racistas e desavisados, pensar que a universidade pública é excludente pode soar contraditório. 

 

Contra essa ideia, a resposta é simples: a universidade pública é racista, porque todas as instituições são. Ponto. A polícia é racista por matar três vezes mais pessoas negras do que as brancas. O judiciário é racista por condenar mais negros do que brancos, mesmo que os primeiros tenham menos drogas apreendidas. A mídia é racista por majoritariamente retratar pessoas negras em cargos de submissão e associá-las à criminalidade. Enfim, a lista vai longe. E nessa complexa trama política-ideológica, a existência das cotas cumpre um papel fundamental de denúncia do racismo. Por isso, seria insanidade diminuir a sua importância. Ao mesmo tempo, defendê-la com unhas e dentes não quer dizer que estamos satisfeitos com a situação atual. Se durante séculos a história do Brasil foi marcada por uma sistemática opressão e exploração das pessoas negras, por que 10 anos de política de cotas seria o suficiente para reparar tais danos? 

Os “de cima” querem que nos contentemos com pouco, mas, como disse a cantora mineira Bia Ferreira, “cota não é esmola”. Não queremos ajuda, queremos justiça. E com a cabeça erguida, sem pedir licença, continuaremos nas universidades, lutando pela ampliação das políticas de permanência, denunciando a produção científica branca-eurocêntrica, e afrontando o protagonismo branco em todos espaços, desde as salas de aula até os órgãos colegiados e conselhos estudantis.  

Hoje, depois de muita luta, vemos que algumas universidades enegreceram, tornando-se um pouco mais democráticas e populares. Mas nenhum avanço, mesmo os mais tímidos, estão imunes ao retrocesso. Aprendemos muito bem essa lição com o governo de Jair Bolsonaro, responsável por acusar universitários de fazer “balbúrdia”, alegando que a universidade “não é para todos”. Ao dizer isso, Bolsonaro e sua quadrilha mostram que não retrocedem à toa: eles têm medo da educação. Afinal, o conhecimento derruba mitos.

 

Só que além de derrubar Bolsonaro, que é uma tarefa urgente, a educação deve servir para derrubar outro mito, neste caso, um fundante da sociedade brasileira: o mito da democracia racial. Ele que, até hoje, não foi enfrentado de maneira radical por nenhum governo. Mesmo as experiências petistas recuaram neste enfrentamento, ao aprovar, por exemplo, a Lei de Drogas, ampliando o encarceramento em massa. E tem quem defenda esse recuo, dizendo que levantar essas bandeiras afasta as pessoas e prejudica as mobilizações.

 

Mas a história nos prova exatamente o contrário. Basta pensar em quais foram as maiores mobilizações contra o Bolsonaro no último período: o “Ele Não”, em 2018, e os grandes atos antirracistas de 2020 e 2021 são alguns exemplos. Levantando nossas bandeiras nós nos fortalecemos, tanto nas ruas quanto nas urnas. Não à toa, depois dessas mobilizações protagonizadas por mulheres e pessoas negras, vimos ser eleita, como vereadora mais votada da cidade de São Paulo, uma mulher trans, negra e socialista. Em segundo lugar, assistimos à eleição de uma bancada coletiva de mulheres, que para além da luta LGBTQIA+ e antirracista, reivindicavam também o ecossocialismo. Percebam que nenhuma bandeira foi abaixada.

 

Por isso também, não abaixaremos nossas bandeiras. Não nos contentaremos com pouco. Não só queremos que as cotas sejam mantidas, mas exigimos que todas as políticas de reparação histórica sejam ampliadas. Afinal, no país que mais mata pessoas trans e travestis, cotas trans também são uma urgência. No país onde apenas 7% dos homens negros possuem ensino superior completo, a ampliação das políticas de permanência é um dever. Por memória e reparação, não cessaremos a nossa luta!

 

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