Economia criativa, cultura e capital financeiro disputam espaço para revitalização do prédio

Primeiro Encontro de Cultura Negra em Bauru aconteceu no saguão principal da antiga Estação Ferroviária (Foto: Ana Carolina Moraes / JORNAL DOIS)

Por Ana Carolina Moraes, Giovana Amorim, Laura Botosso e Yuri Ferreira


S e a proposta é a ocupação cultural da Estação, tanto o poder público quanto os movimentos culturais acêntricos (grupos sociais que organizam fora das áreas centrais) apoiam a ideia. O prédio, que é um marco simbólico para o desenvolvimento da cidade, tem uma boa estrutura para aumentar as opções de cultura e lazer no município. Para Luiz Fonseca, Secretário Municipal de Cultura, este propósito vai além: a ocupação da antiga estação fortalece a cultura e fomenta a reestruturação da área central. “A revitalização do prédio acaba invadindo outros espaços, trazendo exposições artísticas. Você tem uma gare que pode ser utilizada, você tem vagões que podem virar bibliotecas, restaurantes, uma sala de leitura, uma sala de aula”, explana o Secretário, concluindo que turismo e cultura caminham juntos e tem potencial para gerar trabalho e renda.

O eixo potencial para este processo, segundo o secretário, seria a economia criativa. “Eu recebi fotos de estações ferroviárias de outras cidades do interior, onde os prédios abandonados se tornaram boulevard, shoppings, um espaço legal para se passar a tarde, com um paisagismo bonito”, complementa. De acordo com o Núcleo de Estudos e Observações em Economia Criativa, NeoCriativa, a economia criativa é o setor que usa ideias (insumos imateriais) para a geração de trabalho, renda e valorização cultural subalterna. A proposta de Fonseca aborda esses três pontos, mas é parecido com a reocupação de centros urbanos por meio de megaprojetos.

Para David Harvey, geógrafo britânico, em entrevista ao Canal Ibase, o interesse do capital é quem dita a construção das cidades em sociedades neoliberais. “O capital precisa que o estado assegure essa dinâmica [de construção de megaprojetos]. Assim, pode usar esses eventos como instrumentos de investimentos e mais lucratividade. Invariavelmente, entre as consequências dos megaeventos estão as remoções de pessoas de algumas áreas. Eles dependem disso para serem realizados”, comenta o geógrafo, desvendando como o processo de gentrificação é favorecido.

Durante a entrevista com Luiz Fonseca, Secretário de Cultura de Bauru, a Sala São Paulo, na Estação Júlio Prestes, foi citada como exemplo de estação ferroviária restaurada para a cultura. De acordo com o Secretário, nos tempos em que a Estação funcionava, o centro fazia parte do passeio do paulistano. “De repente a área virou um mausoléu, ficou abandonada. Até que um governador resolveu criar a Sala São Paulo, que está totalmente interligada com a ferrovia e que cria um mundo à parte com os eventos e exposições”, discorre.

Como é que tira?

Construída para ser a sede e ponto de partida da Estrada de Ferro Sorocabana, a Estação Júlio Prestes, em São Paulo, foi inaugurada em 1999 como parte do processo de revitalização do centro urbano da capital. A Sala São Paulo é um prédio tombado pelo Conselho de Defesa do Patrimônio Histórico Arqueológico, Artístico e Turístico, classificada pelo jornal britânico The Guardian como uma das dez melhores casas de concertos do mundo, em 2015.

A Sala São Paulo é resultado de uma parceria entre o Governo do Estado e a iniciativa privada. Para Marina Fix, pesquisadora da Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), em entrevista ao Labjor da Unicamp, a transformação da Estação Júlio Prestes em um espaço cultural representou uma tentativa de valorização da área que, à época, era onde se localizava o fluxo de usuários de crack. Para os agentes envolvidos nesse processo, a restauração do prédio simbolizava um “salto civilizatório na ‘Cracolândia’”, disserta Fix.

Em Bauru, a reorganização do espaço não garantiu o não-acesso por pessoas em situação de rua à Estação. Fonseca conta que, apesar da quantidade ter diminuído, moradores e moradoras de rua ainda utilizam o espaço à noite. “Você chega lá durante o dia e não tem uma pessoa sequer jogada na calçada. Quando você sai à noite, é de ponta a ponta na estação, você vê caminhas; pessoas com seus cobertorzinhos embaixo da marquise”, observa.

Assim como os entornos da Sala São Paulo no final do século XX, o centro da cidade sem limites abriga pessoas em situação de rua. O Secretário reconhece a situação de rua como um problema social grave em todo Brasil, ainda em busca de solução. No entanto, associa políticas assistencialistas direcionadas à esse grupo social como um dos fatores que dificulta sua remoção da marquise da estação. O exemplo são as ONGs que lá entregam refeições para moradores de rua e tornam “a estação um ponto onde ele sabe que vai receber alimento e, por isso, acaba ficando”.

Enquanto falava sobre a revitalização da Estação Júlio Prestes, Fonseca comentou que a remoção das pessoas em situação de rua dos entornos da construção paulistana foi um processo. “Como é que eles tiraram isso de lá? Na época, as pessoas também serviam alimentação. E aí, nessa obra gigantesca que foi feita, eles conseguiram eliminar, tirar aquele ponto das entregas de alimentos. Portanto você já tirou um pouquinho dali, e fizeram um trabalho de conscientização. Mas a noite não tem jeito. Tanto é que todos os dias pela manhã passa um caminhão lavando tudo”, conclui o Secretário Municipal de Cultura.

Antiga Estação Ferroviária foi inaugurada em 1939 e está na Avenida Pedro de Toledo, 53, Centro de Bauru (Imagem: divulgação Prefeitura)

A situação de abandono da Estação Ferroviária é semelhante à situação das pessoas que moram nas ruas: ambas são produtos de um sistema de exclusão pautado pela maximização dos lucros.

Pessoas em situação de rua são compreendidas como um grupo social descartável. Em entrevista para a reportagem Marias das Ruas, Elaene Rodrigues, pesquisadora da Universidade de Brasília (UnB) explica que “o trabalho na nossa sociedade é fundante e essas pessoas não estão nessa relação de trabalho formal”. Não contribuindo para a geração de renda da nação, não precisam existir nela.

Apesar de não mais concentrar a geração de renda na cidade, a Estação não compreende apenas sua história. Também aponta as pessoas que participam desse local e o modo em que elas intervêm na realidade, conforme apreende Santos. A revitalização da Estação Júlio Prestes, bem como a do centro Bauruense, está ligada ao resgate da proposta para o qual o prédio foi construído: atender a elite paulista.

O espaço evidencia as contradições do sistema e a forma como o capital pensa as cidades. Para o geógrafo David Harvey, se de um lado o capital vai muito bem, do outro as pessoas vão mal. “Enquanto o capitalismo quer desempoderar pessoas, a fim de reproduzir a si próprio, elas querem verbas para outras coisas [saúde, educação, infraestrutura nos bairros]. O grande problema é a tendência de dominação do capital sobre o poder político nas cidades”, justifica ele.

Sonhos

Além da inclusão dos grupos acêntricos nesses espaços, a ocupação cultural da Estação Ferroviária de Bauru cria perspectivas para que as culturas subalternas sejam conhecidas e difundidas. “A cultura aqui é fomentadora de sonhos”, afirma Carlos Renato Moreira, o Magu, presidente da Casa do Hip Hop.

A interpretação de que a presença de movimentos da cultura subalterna é uma forma de preservar o legado da ferrovia na cidade é compartilhada por Sanches, diretor do Museu Ferroviário. Para ele, democratizar o espaço dentro do prédio representa a essência da Estação: “as várias culturas, várias etnias, várias diferenças que criaram a nossa cidade.”

Local é sede de movimentos sociais como a Casa do Hip Hop (Foto: Ana Carolina Moraes / JORNAL DOIS)

O geógrafo Milton Santos entende o espaço como uma área de “experiência sempre renovada, o que permite, ao mesmo tempo, a reavaliação das heranças e a indagação sobre o presente e o futuro”. De fato, a utilidade do espaço está ligada às pessoas que fazem parte dele. No caso da Estação, a diversidade de movimentos culturais acêntricos tem atrasado o processo de revitalização do local, criando mecanismos e alternativas para a gentrificação do centro urbano.

Bauru não é chão de passagem. É confluência de caminhos e resultado das experiências de todas as pessoas que passaram por este território. O prédio da estação ferroviária não simboliza o fim, mas sim o marco para todas as possibilidades que se manifestam por aqui, como apresentado por Sanches. “Pelo tanto de pessoas que ela [a ferrovia] transportou, a variedade de culturas que ela trouxe para Bauru, por que que não pode ter esse emaranhado de gente ocupando a estação?”.

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