O que o Plano Diretor diz sobre a sua vida em 2020

E o que não saiu do papel nos últimos 10 anos. Conversamos com o arquiteto e pesquisador Adalberto Retto Júnior para entender o documento que coordena o futuro do planejamento e uso do território nas cidades do Brasil

Publicado em 7 de dezembro de 2019

Previsões para um futuro não tão distante, e que não dependem da posição dos astros: estão nas diretrizes do Plano Diretor do município (Arte: Letícia Sartori/Jornal Dois)
Por Bibiana Garrido

Melhorias nas ruas, na iluminação e na arborização, mais moradia, comércio noturno, recuperação e valorização de prédios tombados e de interesse histórico-cultural, ocupação de imóveis ao longo da orla ferroviária. Essas são algumas das diretrizes contidas no Plano Diretor Participativo do Município de Bauru de 2008 para o “desenvolvimento equilibrado da Zona Central”. Há mais de uma década, foram estabelecidas junto a dezenas de outras medidas não só para o centro, mas para áreas urbanas e rurais de toda a cidade, de maneira a orientar decisões e políticas públicas de ocupação e uso do território. 

É isso que faz um Plano Diretor. Com base em uma série de etapas, consultas e pesquisas envolvendo sociedade civil e poder público, ele determina o futuro dos municípios do Brasil. 

Aqui em Bauru uma nova proposta do documento deverá ser apresentada pela Prefeitura Municipal à Câmara dos Vereadores até junho de 2020. E isso diz muito sobre a nossa vida daqui para a frente.

Batemos um papo com o professor, pesquisador e arquiteto Adalberto Retto Júnior da Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), para entender um pouco mais dessa lei, sua aplicação prática e possibilidades para os próximos dez anos na cidade. De quebra, fomos dar uma olhada no Plano de 2008 para comparar algumas metas da época com a realidade de hoje.

Como é que funciona?

O Plano Diretor é um instrumento que foi efetivado na Constituição Federal de 1988, e que foi regulamentado pelo Estatuto da Cidade (Lei 10.257) em 10 de julho de 2001. Desde então, um guia publicado pelo Ministério das Cidades – hoje, Ministério do Desenvolvimento Regional – orienta a elaboração do documento nos municípios acima de 20 mil habitantes, nos quais o Plano Diretor é obrigatório. 

“Isso significa afirmar que para quase um terço dos municípios brasileiros o Plano Diretor não é uma opção, é uma obrigação”, explica Adalberto Retto Júnior, que coordenada o grupo de pesquisa em Sistemas Integrados Territoriais e Urbanos – Grupo SITU. “Os demais instrumentos de planejamento de governo, o plano plurianual e o orçamento, devem incorporar as diretrizes e as prioridades nele contidas”.

A elaboração de um Plano precisa seguir algumas etapas, variáveis de acordo com o município. Entre elas, como regra geral, estão: criação de um núcleo gestor misto entre governo, empresas, sindicatos, movimentos sociais e demais representantes da sociedade civil; análises técnicas; análises e opiniões da perspectiva comunitária; discussão e redação da proposta de lei; e, por último, aprovação na Câmara dos Vereadores.

De dez em dez anos 

Foi em 1967 que Bauru teve o seu primeiro Plano Diretor. Depois de uma revisão em 1996, a seguinte foi em 2008. A partir daí, revisões e atualizações deveriam ocorrer de dez em dez anos. Considerando que nova versão do documento ficará pronta na metade do ano que vem, estamos dois anos atrasados. 

Por definição, o Plano Diretor estabelece “normas de ordem pública e interesse social, que regulam o uso da propriedade em todo o território do Município, em prol do bem coletivo, da segurança, do bem-estar dos cidadãos e do equilíbrio ambiental”. É o que consta no artigo 1° da lei de 2008. 

O que virou (e o que não virou) 

“Destravar” a cidade é uma das principais bandeiras do governo de Clodoaldo Gazzetta (PSD). Medidas nesse sentido foram encaminhadas durante o mandato, algumas delas, indo na contramão do que estabelecia o Plano Diretor de 2008. A proibição de construção em Áreas de Proteção Ambiental (APA) constava no documento de quase doze anos atrás, páginas 45 e 46,  e foi uma das coisas que mudou assim que Gazzetta assumiu a prefeitura, em 2017. 

O perímetro urbano também foi ampliado, apesar disposto no artigo 3°, página 4, logo no começo do Plano de 2008, que indicava ações do poder público “combatendo a retenção imobiliária especulativa e incentivando a ocupação dos vazios urbanos”. 

Revitalização, ocupação e moradia no centro (artigo 25);  criação do novo Parque do Castelo na Nações Norte, “com atividade de recreação e lazer, contenção de águas pluviais, e serviços públicos” (artigo 30); e implantação de parques lineares de fundo de vale (artigo 36) estão entre as diretrizes estabelecidas em 2008 e não concluídas.

No artigo 30, consta a “implantação da Avenida Nações Unidas Norte como vetor de desenvolvimento da região e do município”, construção que se cumpriu em 2011. Para o centro,  entre as atividades que se cumpriram estão o desenvolvimento das feiras livres de Bauru e instalação do Poupatempo.

A elaboração do Plano Diretor de Parques e Áreas Verdes (artigo 75), e do Plano de Controle e Combate às Erosões (artigo 168) não se concluiu. Já o Plano Diretor de Resíduos Sólidos (artigo 163) saiu do papel, assim como o Conselho Municipal de Mobilidade (artigo 172) e o Plano Diretor de Transporte e de Mobilidade (artigo 173) em etapa de finalização. 

O Plano Diretor de 2008 prevê ainda a criação de um Sistema Municipal de Planejamento e Gestão, composto pelo Conselho do Município de Bauru; Sistemas de Informações Municipais; Instituto de Planejamento e Desenvolvimento de Bauru; Secretarias Municipais; e Instrumentos de Democratização. A discussão em torno do Instituto de Planejamento e Desenvolvimento está em pauta na Câmara Municipal até hoje.

Em 2014, ainda presidente do Partido Verde, Gazzetta falava sobre o instituto em audiência: “Não é um órgão de assessoria do prefeito, é um órgão curador do plano diretor da cidade. E, portanto, tem que ser criado pelas forças vivas da cidade, pra que beneficie a sociedade como um todo. Vai colocar em prática aquilo que nós discutimos no plano diretor, em funcionamento no município. Coisa que, infelizmente, a prefeitura, por conta das obrigações do dia-a-dia, acaba se esquecendo de fazer”.

Saiba mais sobre a política de destravamento aqui

Como parte do destravamento e liberação de áreas para indústrias, a política do governo removeu assentamentos urbanos de áreas que estavam, antes das ocupações, sem uso. Na junção de quatro acampamentos em um território criou-se o maior assentamento urbano da história de Bauru. Pouco tempo depois, também removido

Em seu artigo 27, a lei de 2008 delimita que em zonas de população de baixa renda e ocupações irregulares haja “prioridade nos investimentos em infra–estrutura e equipamentos públicos”, com “implantação de programas habitacionais de interesse social e regularização fundiária” e “instalação de atividades de comércio e serviços capazes de assegurar maior autonomia aos bairros, sua vitalidade econômica e geração de emprego e renda”. 

E por que não virou?

“Apesar de conter todos os pontos necessários, o Plano Diretor não estabelece prazos para a realização das atividades expostas”, analisam Carolina Lee, Flávia Morales Alves, Giovanna Hortenci e Thaís Prieto Rodrigues sobre o PDP 2008. “Não há definição de origem e quantidade dos fundos necessários”, concluem. 

Para o arquiteto Adalberto Retto Júnior, pesquisador especialista em cidades de pequeno e médio porte, faltou cobrança por parte da Prefeitura e da Câmara para a consolidação do Plano em Bauru, a curto, médio e longo prazo. “Infelizmente, é comum [que diretrizes não sejam cumpridas]”, avalia ele. “O Plano Diretor deveria superar as descontinuidades administrativas e balizar a política de desenvolvimento e expansão urbana, objetivando oferecer soluções substantivas às decisões políticas”.

Daqui para a frente

O cronograma para novo Plano Diretor 2020 foi dividido em quatro etapas: 1) o planejamento, com o lançamento do processo, mobilização e capacitação; 2) realização das audiências e pesquisas; 3) oficinas temáticas por segmentos, consolidação das propostas e do texto; 4) apresentação aos vereadores. No momento, Bauru se encontra na finalização da etapa 2.

“Dentro deste contexto”, avalia o professor Adalberto, “o ponto central para revisar um plano diretor é a participação popular. Mas uma participação popular que irá explicitar claramente qual o projeto de cidade que ela quer”. 

Além da participação popular, o arquiteto enfatiza a necessidade da capacidade e formação dos profissionais envolvidos, que devem “compreender a importância política dos conteúdos urbanísticos, entender a relevância dos dados técnicos para as políticas públicas para oferecer soluções substantivas às decisões políticas na busca e desenvolvimento de soluções sustentáveis do ponto de vista tecnológico, social, ambiental e econômico”. 

Foram realizadas 21 audiências em 12 setores urbanos e nove rurais, sob a responsabilidade da Secretaria Municipal de Planejamento (Seplan) e da empresa Demacamp, contratada por licitação. A verba destinada à empresa licitada é de R$ 580,3 mil. Contrária à contratação da empresa, a Faculdade de Arquitetura, Artes e Comunicação da Unesp/Bauru, declarou que teria oferecido os mesmos serviços sem custo ao município. 

Essa é a primeira parte de uma série especial do Jornal Dois sobre o Plano Diretor 2020. Leia mais sobre a empresa Demacamp e como foram as audiências públicas setoriais na próxima reportagem.

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