PFF2: O que é, por que usar e onde encontrar em Bauru?

Estudos apontam que máscaras PFF2 são as mais eficazes na proteção contra a covid-19

Publicado em 10 de maio de 2021

PFF2 pode ser decisiva na proteção contra o coronavírus, sobretudo em espaços fechados, segundo cientistas (Foto: Camila Araujo/Jornal Dois)
Por Marcela Franco 

PFF2 é um equipamento de proteção individual. A sigla significa peça facial filtrante e o número dois está ligado à porcentagem de proteção, que nesse caso indica uma eficiência mínima de 94%. O equipamento, cujo objetivo inicial é proteger trabalhadores contra poeiras, névoas e fumo, ficou conhecido na pandemia do novo coronavírus como peça central na proteção contra covid-19.

Segundo estudo realizado pelo Centro Nacional de Informações sobre Biotecnologia dos Estados Unidos, esse tipo de máscara é feita com diversos materiais filtrantes, impedindo que partículas entrem nas vias respiratórias do indivíduo.

O uso obrigatório de máscaras em espaços públicos e privados durante a pandemia do novo coronavírus é lei, editada em junho de 2020. Junto à máscara, o distanciamento social e a higienização das mãos são apontados como as medidas de prevenção mais eficazes contra a transmissão da covid-19.

Outro estudo recente mostra que as máscaras de tecidos, muito usadas no início da pandemia devido à grande demanda dos materiais de proteção no mundo todo, não estão entre os modelos mais eficazes para proteção contra covid-19. A França, por exemplo, proibiu o uso dessas máscaras após a descoberta de novas variantes.

Há também os modelos cirúrgicos, que são confeccionados com polipropileno, uma resina de baixa densidade. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa) recomenda o uso desse tipo de máscara para pacientes com febre, tosse ou dificuldade para respirar, profissionais de saúde e também indivíduos que precisam ficar a menos de um metro do paciente suspeito ou caso confirmado.

Com o avanço da variante B1, em janeiro deste ano de 2021, França, Áustria, Alemanha e outros países da Europa passaram a recomendar o uso dos equipamentos PFF2. Mesmo a Anvisa mantendo a indicação do uso das máscaras de tecido, houve uma popularização, principalmente nas redes sociais, sobre o uso do material de proteção.

A página PFF para Todos foi criada nesse contexto para trazer informações sobre o equipamento e indicar locais de vendas do produto em todas as regiões do país. A página Qual Máscara? também traz conteúdos informativos e científicos que comprovam a eficácia da máscara PFF2 na proteção contra covid-19. O Jornal Dois apurou um aumento relevante nas buscas do Google relacionadas à “máscara PFF2” no mês de abril de 2021.

Por que usar?

A Prefeitura de Bauru confirmou em março de 2021 os primeiros casos das variantes B.1.1.7, B.1.1.33, B.1.1.28, P.2, B.1.1.143 e P.1, também conhecida como 501Y.V3. Segundo estudo publicado na Science Advances, revista científica dos Estados Unidos, a variante P1 é capaz de ser 1,7 a 2,4 vezes mais transmissível que as linhagens anteriores, ou seja, não P1. A estimativa da pesquisa liderada pela Universidade de Copenhague, na Dinamarca, foi baseada em análises e estatísticas dos dados genéticos e de mortalidade durante o surto em Manaus.

Na pesquisa realizada pelo Centro Nacional de Informações sobre Biotecnologia dos Estados Unidos, o equipamento apresenta dois tipos de filtro, um mecânico e um eletrostático. O primeiro é composto por fibras de polipropileno, o material permite que as partículas fiquem presas na máscara. O segundo possui uma carga eletrostática para atrair partículas que o filtro mecânico não consegue impedir. Esse recurso pode aumentar a eficiência da filtragem mecânica de 10 a 20 vezes.

Os elásticos da máscara PFF2 ficam presos à cabeça e não às orelhas, o que proporciona maior vedação facial.

O que diz a ciência?

Pesquisa publicada na Science Advances avaliou o nível de proteção das máscaras a partir de um experimento que testou 14 tipos de equipamentos de proteção. As selecionadas foram:

1 – Cirúrgica
2 – N95 com válvula
3 – Máscara feita com tecido de camiseta
4- Máscara de polipropileno de duas camadas
5- Máscara de algodão e polipropileno (polipropileno é colocado entre duas camadas de algodão)
6 – Máscara de algodão de uma camada com dobras
7 – Máscara de algodão com dobras de duas camadas
8 – Máscara de algodão com camada dupla
9 – Máscara de algodão com dobras de camada dupla,
10 – Máscara de algodão costurada a mão
11 – Gola de pescoço usada como máscara
12 – Bandana dobrada usada como máscara
13 – Máscara de algodão de amarrar
14 – Máscara N95 sem válvula

O número das máscaras citadas acima correspondem às imagens de cada modelo (Foto: Science Advances/ Reprodução)

Os pesquisadores equiparam uma caixa preta com um laser e uma câmera de celular, e fizeram com que um indivíduo usando os tipos de máscaras selecionadas falasse na direção do feixe de laser dentro da caixa. As gotículas propagadas por meio do feixe de luz se espelharam dentro do recipiente. Os procedimentos foram gravados para que um algoritmo de computador contasse as gotas emitidas durante a fala no vídeo.

Ilustração exemplificando o procedimento feito para testar as máscaras (Foto: Science Advances/ Reprodução)

Na comparação, a máscara mais eficaz foi a N95 sem válvula, que equivale ao modelo PFF2 certificado nos Estados Unidos. Na ordem de eficácia, o resultado mostrou a máscara cirúrgica como a segunda mais eficaz, seguida pela de algodão e polipropileno, e a máscara de polipropileno de duas camadas na sequência. Os resultados mostraram que as máscaras menos eficazes e não recomendadas são as feitas com tecido de camiseta, a bandana dobrada usada e a gola de pescoço usada como máscara.

Máscara de polipropileno é similar ao equipamento de proteção cirúrgica (Foto: Divulgação)

Outro estudo realizado pelo Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear e o Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Publicado na revista Environmental Research encontrou a presença do coronavírus em aerossóis, que são partículas invisíveis que se concentram no ar.

A pesquisa investigou hospitais, calçadas e rodoviárias. O levantamento inicialmente reforçou a hipótese da transmissão aérea do novo coronavírus. O SARS-CoV-2 foi encontrado em aerossóis dentro das UTI analisadas.

Segundo a Anvisa, a máscara PFF2 é recomendada tanto para proteção contra aerossóis contendo agentes biológicos, quanto para proteção contra outros materiais com partículas, uma vez que o filtro do equipamento impede a transmissão de microorganismos (esféricos, cilíndricos, filamentosos) na forma de aerossóis.

Cuidados com a PFF2

Beatriz Klimeck, doutoranda em saúde coletiva e Ralph Holzmann, mestrando em comunicação, criadores da página Qual a Máscara? no Instagram explicam os cuidados necessários ao comprar a máscara PFF2.

São eles: a verificação do certificado de aprovação do produto, que é a garantia verificada pelo Ministério da Economia sobre equipamentos de proteção individual, pelo site: consultaca.com, informando o número do certificado.

O portal mostra as especificações da máscara para conferir se as informações da embalagem são as mesmas do certificado.

Outro cuidado que é preciso ter com a PFF2 é em relação à conservação e manutenção do equipamento. De acordo com estudo, feito pelo Centro Nacional de Informações sobre Biotecnologia dos Estados Unidos, as máscaras não podem ser lavadas com água nem higienizadas com álcool.

O equipamento de proteção conta com uma camada de filtragem, para impedir que o vírus chegue a um indivíduo, e o álcool e o sabão danificam essa camada. O estudo ainda explica que para reutilizar o equipamento de forma segura é preciso deixar a máscara descansando sem mexer durante, no mínimo, três dias sem pegar luz solar direta.

Atenção na hora de comprar uma PFF2 (Foto: Reprodução/@qualmascara)

O boletim técnico da 3M, empresa atuante na área de produtos industriais, destaca que os respiradores PFF2 são equivalentes aos modelos  N95; certificado nos Estados Unidos, FFP2; certificado na Europa, KN95; certificado na China e P2; certificado na Austrália e Nova Zelândia. 

Em Bauru

O J2 apurou locais que vendem máscaras PFF2 em Bauru. As lojas estão sinalizadas no mapa pelo ícone de sacola de cor laranja. O preço varia de R$ 5 a R$ 19. Os locais mais comuns para encontrar são lojas de equipamentos médicos e de proteção individual. Há também a possibilidade de comprar online em lojas varejistas.

 

Em março de 2021, Rogério Carvalho (PT), senador, apresentou um projeto de lei que tem por objetivo fornecer duas máscaras PFF2 por mês para beneficiários do auxílio emergencial, do bolsa família ou do benefício de prestação continuada (BPC). A proposta ainda está em andamento no Senado.

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