Os desafios da Lei da Inovação: Bauru na rota dos polos tecnológicos

Projeto de Lei foi apresentado em audiência pública e quer servir de ponte entre universidades locais e empresas

Reportagem publicada em 29 de junho de 2018

Por Maria Esther Castedo

 


 

Projeto de Lei foi apresentado pela primeira vez na Câmara Municipal (Foto: Unesp Notícias/Reprodução)
 

“Sem tecnologia, sem inovação e sem o conhecimento da academia, nós não vamos conseguir avançar”, desta forma resumiu Aline Fogolin a proposta da Lei da Inovação durante a primeira audiência pública que tratou do tema. Convocada pela vereadora Chiara Ranieri (DEM), a audiência aconteceu no início de junho na Câmara Municipal, com a presença de vereadores e pessoas envolvidas no projeto.

Fogolin é da Secretaria do Desenvolvimento Econômico, Turismo e Renda (Sedecon) e foi a primeira a tomar a palavra na Câmara. Para ela, a lei vai tornar Bauru mais atrativa, trazer mais empregos, renda e desenvolvimento.

Mas o que diz a Lei da Inovação? Criada em 2004, busca fortalecer os vínculos entre universidades, instituições de pesquisa e empresas em prol da inovação. Na teoria, é fortalecer pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação (PD&I) para a criação de produtos inovadores.

Para que isso aconteça, a lei permite incentivos às pesquisas científicas, cooperação entre pesquisadores e empresas — como é o caso dos professores poderem exercer pesquisas também no âmbito privado, atividade regulamentada em 2016 por meio de marco legal. Também consta a criação de parques tecnológicos e de parcerias.

A secretária explicou que o projeto foi formulado ao longo do ano passado, com quatro encontros em parceria com instituições do ensino superior. Entre elas a Fatec, Unesp, USC, USP e profissionais da Ordem de Advogados do Brasil (OAB), Associação de Empresas de Serviços de Tecnologia da Informação (Asserti), Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia do Agronegócio, Sincomércio e Câmara dos Dirigentes Lojistas de Bauru (CDL).

 

Um dos principais pontos tocados foi a origem dos recursos para a lei, que segundo a minuta será pública e privada (Arte: Asserti Bauru)
 

Desses encontros foi formada a Comissão Provisória de Tecnologia e Inovação, que teve entre um dos seus objetivos, estudar em quais áreas esta lei poderia beneficiar Bauru. Fogolin disse ter concluído que “Bauru não tem uma categoria única de investimentos e sim uma fortaleza de cadeia mista, atrativa em todos os processos”.

Investimento em pesquisa

No ano passado os cortes no Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC) chegaram a 44%. Isso significa o enxugamento de laboratórios de pesquisa, assim como das bolsas de pesquisas concedidas pelo Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). Para 2018, a previsão é que o corte aumente mais 25%.

Maurício Augusto Ruiz, advogado e presidente da Comissão de Direito Eletrônico e Digital da OAB-Bauru aponta que será criado um Fundo Municipal de Apoio à Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. “A ideia do fundo é servir de ligação entre pesquisadores, empreendedores e as grandes agências de fomento”, comenta na audiência. “As origens das verbas desse fundo, fica estabelecido na minuta que seriam público e privado, mas principalmente com investimento da iniciativa privada”.

Para Carlos Rocha e Tatiana Roque, coordenadores da campanha “Conhecimento Sem Cortes”, a literatura mostra que os investimentos em pesquisas básicas, base para tudo que será produzido, é feito com dinheiro público. Nos últimos 20 anos, o Brasil avançou em dez vezes o número de publicações científicas.

A produção de pesquisas faz parte da primeira parte do PD&I. Em um segundo momento, representado pelo D e I (desenvolvimento e inovação), é onde se veem os investimentos privados, somados aos recursos públicos.

Um dos pontos da minuta é o uso do fundo para monografias, iniciações científicas de alunos do ensino médio e ensino superior, projetos de pessoas físicas e jurídicas, obras e instalações-projetos de aparelhos e equipamentos, assim como apoio a eventos. Ainda não há uma definição se algum campo de estudo será prioridade. Fogolin explica que “vai depender de como vai ser aprovada”. Outro ponto, é que a Lei da Inovação pretende conceder incentivo fiscal àquelas empresas que investirem nessa inovação.

Experiências brasileiras

Durante a audiência, muitos falaram sobre as portas que seriam abertas para Bauru com a lei. Até foi citado a criação de um “Vale do Silício brasileiro”, em comparação com os avanços que a união universidades e empresas trouxe ao cenário estadunidense. Todos frisaram ser um sonho e que o projeto é de longo prazo. Algumas cidades que adotaram os parques tecnológicos foram citadas, como Recife e Ribeirão Preto.

Chamada de Porto Digital, Recife é um dos polos tecnológicos mais antigos do Brasil: tem 18 anos. Por lá, foram escolhidos prédios do centro antigo que estavam abandonados, para revitalização e utilização como sede de projetos. O polo pernambucano tem foco em Economia Criativa e Tecnologia da Informação, nos segmentos de games, fotografia, design e multimídia. No interior paulista está o polo de Ribeirão, conhecido como Supera Parque. Com quatro de anos de atividades, o Supera está instalado no campus da USP local e possui 74 empresas em fases de incubação, empreendimento e aceleração.

 

O Supera Parque está com inscrições abertas para o processo de incubação de startups; aprimeira fase é participar do curso Empreende, com custa de R$ 360,00 por pessoa e será realizado em agosto (Foto: Divulgação/Assessoria de Comunicação do Supera Parque)

Segundo um estudo do Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES) de 2016, essas estruturas são recentes no país. A maioria não passa dos cinco anos e, por serem projetos de longo prazo, é difícil mensurar seus resultados. O BNDES indica que a maioria dos polos tecnológicos se encontram nas regiões Sul, Nordeste e Sudeste; os mestres e doutores são 13,5% dos que ocupam cargos nas empresas e a principal necessidade de investimento é na infraestrutura (edificações). Sendo nesta última, demonstrado que a viabilização só se deu com fontes públicas não reembolsáveis.

Sobre a iniciativa de usar prédios públicos, a secretária da Sedecon diz que esse exemplo foi colocado em prática com o Centro de Inovação de Bauru. Localizado na Avenida Rodrigues Alves, está inativo pois aguarda verbas para reforma. O Centro pretende servir como uma incubadora de empresas para Bauru e região. Com a lei, “a ideia também é a melhor utilização das pesquisas pelas universidades em Bauru, fixar talentos”.

A próxima audiência pública para discutir a Lei da Inovação ainda não tem data marcada. Por agora, o Conselho recebeu dúvidas e sugestões da população pela internet.

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