O que é a proposta de ecologia social

Conheça história e ideias de Murray Bookchin, um dos primeiros autores a falar sobre a harmonia com o meio ambiente por meio de uma economia pública e municipalizada

Publicado em 10 de dezembro de 2020

Capa do livro "Ecologia Social e outros ensaios" de Murray Bookchin (Arte: Bibiana Garrido/Jornal Dois)
Por Arthur Castro, colunista do J2

Nascido em 1921, Bookchin foi um importante nome da esquerda dos Estados Unidos. Começou sua militância junto ao marxismo, primeiro com o stalinismo e depois com o trotskismo, mas, nos anos 50, começou uma aproximação com o pensamento anarquista. Ele rejeitou o que considerou um foco exagerado na economia da ideologia marxista, bem como a disputa do Estado, e passou a ser um defensor da democracia direta.

Foi um dos primeiros autores a falar sobre a importância da harmonia com o meio ambiente, em seu texto “The Problem of Chemicals In Food” (O Problema dos Químicos na Comida), e desenvolveu sua teoria da ecologia social.

Para Bookchin a humanidade deveria superar todas as hierarquias sociais existentes – de classe, de gênero, de etnia, de idade, de nacionalidade, dentre outras – e construir um mundo livre, igualitário e ecologicamente sustentável. Isso se daria, principalmente, pela construção de movimentos comunitários que realizariam uma Revolução Socialista que acabaria com o sistema capitalista, o Estado e todas as formas de dominação.

No final da vida ele viu o anarquismo nos Estados Unidos começar a sofrer influências de autores não anarquistas, como Derrida e Foucault. Esses autores são os principais nomes do pós-modernismo, que não acredita em revoluções e defende que toda mudança no mundo deve ser feita no dia a dia, pela estética, pela poesia e pela arte, separadas de um movimento popular revolucionário. Segundo Bookchin, isso estava produzindo um “anarquismo de estilo de vida”, que nada tinha a ver com o socialismo anarquista de Mikhail Bakunin, Piotr Kropotkin e outros nomes famosos. Não que ele fosse contra a cultura, mas entendia que essa deveria estar combinada com um projeto político.

Nos anos 90, reformula suas ideias com o nome de “comunalismo”, para não ser confundido com esse “anarquismo” que estava forte nos Estados Unidos. Murray Bookchin faleceu em 2006, mas, suas ideias, não.

Seus escritos chegaram ao líder curdo Abdullah Ocalan, que está preso até hoje na Turquia, e lidera o Partido dos Trabalhadores do Curdistão. Para saber mais sobre, há outra coluna de minha autoria no Jornal Dois contando com mais detalhes.

Hierarquias

A maior ameaça para o meio ambiente hoje é o capitalismo, esse sistema que se mantém pela exploração do trabalho para o lucro da burguesia – a elite mundial formada por megaempresários e banqueiros.

O sistema capitalista, diz Bookchin, funciona pela lógica de “cresça ou morra”, isto é, quer lucrar cada vez mais e transformar tudo em mercadoria. O resultado são as atuais mudanças climáticas, o desmatamento, a extinção de espécies. Outro efeito disso é o aumento da miséria e da desigualdade, que abre as portas para aproveitadores de extrema direita, que crescem promovendo o ódio étnico e racial.

Assim, não é possível existir um “capitalismo verde” e “sustentável”, e a sobrevivência da humanidade e do planeta Terra só pode acontecer pela implantação de um sistema socialista.

Bookchin também entendia que a dominação de classe não é a única. O patriarcado, que produz opressões de gênero e sexualidade, e o nacionalismo, base do racismo e do etnocentrismo, são problemas que também devem ser superados.

Apenas um socialismo libertário poderia solucionar as necessidades populares, e a melhor forma de colocar em prática é com municípios autossuficientes e descentralizados.

Mas, Bookchin alertava: suas ideias não deveriam se confundir com a defesa de pequenas comunidades, isoladas, que poderiam produzir uma sociedade conservadora. O que ele defendia eram municípios que cooperassem e dialogassem entre si por meio de uma organização federalista.

O papel do Estado

Como todo anarquista, foi Bookchin socialista crítico do Estado – uma burocracia composta por políticos, ministros, juízes e generais, que via como contrários ao povo. E seria possível tentar mudar esse sistema por dentro? O autor entendia que não, citando como exemplo o Partido Verde da Alemanha (que, diferente daqui, tem ideologia de esquerda).

Os Verdes surgiram como um “partido-movimento”, um meio-termo entre movimento ambientalista e partido político, e que acreditava que para produzir transformações precisaria estar no parlamento (eleger deputados).

Uma vez no poder, esses políticos começaram a negociar com os partidos de direita, e foram diminuindo seu radicalismo, até se tornarem inofensivos ao sistema.

Bookchin também fez críticas ao ecossocialismo, um ramo mais recente do marxismo, pois entendia que, mesmo adaptado, mantinha em sua essência o elemento estatal/governamental, o que acabaria por produzir uma nova burocracia para governar a sociedade. Assim ocorreu com todas as experiências marxistas, como União Soviética e China.

O uso da ciência  

Para Murray Bookchin, a tecnologia e a ciência são ferramentas nas mãos humanas, e, portanto, podem ser boas ou más conforme o seu uso. Fez críticas à proposta tecnocrata de que, se construíssemos um governo formado por cientistas, os problemas ecológicos acabariam.

Também denunciou o primitivismo, uma ideologia que aponta a existência da civilização como um problema e prega o retorno à vida pré-histórica. Bookchin afirmava que, além de ser idealista e surreal, essa visão política muitas vezes se aproximou de posicionamentos fascistas.

A ciência e a razão são naturais, pois são produções da potencialidade humana. O idealismo pró ou antitecnologia apenas serve para mistificar e esconder a destruição causada pelo capitalismo.

Ecologia anticapitalista

Murray Bookchin entendia que a classe trabalhadora passou por muitas mudanças nos últimos tempos. Isso trouxe dificuldades para que o sindicalismo e o marxismo possam conduzir uma revolução.

No seu lugar, o anarquista/comunalista propunha organizações de bairros, por local de moradia, como forma de enfrentar as classes dominantes.

Uma economia estatizada acabaria criando uma direção burocratizada que manteria a opressão e a exploração; por outro lado, a criação de cooperativas poderia favorecer a especulação de preços e o renascimento do capitalismo.

Para Bookchin, a economia devia ser municipalizada, ou seja, a produção seria pública e administrada pelo conjunto de cidadãos da cidade.

Concordando ou não com algumas ou todas as suas ideias, Murray Bookchin foi um grande teórico recente do socialismo e escreveu sobre assuntos importantes para os dias atuais. Não é à toa que ele é a inspiração de uma das maiores experiências revolucionárias de hoje: o Curdistão sírio, também conhecido como Rojava.

*Arthur Castro é professor de História e integrante da Organização Anarquista Socialismo Libertário (OASL).
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