Moradia popular em prédios abandonados: o que pode rolar no centro de Bauru?

Plano Diretor Participativo prevê programas habitacionais populares para a região central; projeto foi também sugerido por Segalla na Câmara

Reportagem publicada em 23 de maio de 2018

Por Bibiana Garrido
A verticalização nas cidades brasileiras é considerada a pior do mundo: prédios são construídos sem integração com as pessoas que andam em volta e restringem a densidade e ocupação espaço público (Foto: Lucas Rodrigues Alves da Silva/Reprodução)

Na primeira Sessão Legislativa do mês de maio o vereador José Roberto Segalla (DEM) ocupou a tribuna da Câmara Municipal para falar de moradia. O tema do debate? Prédios abandonados no centro e zona sul que poderiam ser reaproveitados para abrigar pessoas de baixa renda. Essa medida prentede contribuir para a revitalização da região.

Um levantamento da Polícia Militar feito em 2011 contou mais de 200 imóveis desocupados na zona central de Bauru. Em 2013, a Secretaria Municipal de Planejamento (Seplan) assumiu a tarefa de notificar aqueles que tiveram abandono comprovado. Foram 110 prédios enquadrados pela lei do IPTU Progressivo no Tempo: a cada ano que passa, a conta fica mais cara. Para os terrenos baldios, a fiscalização cabe à Secretaria Municipal de Saúde.

“Nós não temos mais, praticamente, terrenos vazios no centro da cidade. Nós temos imóveis que as pessoas já não tem mais interesse de explorar”, avalia Segalla, em entrevista ao J2. “São imóveis que estão no centro da cidade de Bauru, perto de tudo, sem que a prefeitura precise gastar com água, com luz, com esgoto, já tá tudo ali. Economizaria no transporte das pessoas que estão morando na periferia da cidade e poderiam voltar a morar no centro”.

Para Nilza Aparecida Godoy, que vivia no assentamento Estrela de Davi até a reintegração de posse ocorrida em fevereiro deste ano, a ideia é boa. “Sinceramente, eu acho uma ideia maravilhosa. Mas assim, tem muito prédio que teria que ser reformado, essa reforma vai ser como, se prefeitura não tem dinheiro?”, questiona a bauruense.

A proposta de Segalla é a demolição das estruturas antigas para construção de novos prédios. O vereador sugere que “o prefeito deveria convocar empresas de construção civil, inclusive de fora de Bauru, e oferecer áreas para elas aqui no centro da cidade que pudessem ser do interesse delas para erguer edifícios”.

Quando projetos de moradia popular são destinados para bordas da cidade em que ainda não há estrutura, são criadas novas demandas. É o que aconteceu no acampamento Nova Canaã, para onde foram mandadas as famílias do Estrela de Davi e de mais três assentamentos. Saneamento, água, luz e energia são condições básicas de vida e direitos constitucionais. Também passa a ser necessário investimento na coleta de lixo, pavimentação, transporte coletivo, construção de escolas, postos de saúde e hospitais.

Em primeiro plano, teto da estação ferroviária; ao fundo, a cidade verticalizada e os prédios (Foto: Lucas Rodrigues Alves da Silva/Reprodução)

Como a região central acaba sendo valorizada, a possibilidade de negociação imobiliária fica mais cara — mesmo quando o assunto é prédio abandonado. Desapropriar imóveis, ou seja, retirar a propriedade em prol da necessidade e interesse social, é outra medida que pode ser tomada pelo poder público nesses casos, além de aplicar o IPTU progressivo. Está previsto na Lei Municipal 6.391 de 18 de julho de 2013.

“O que eu tô propondo é que a prefeitura desaproprie o imóvel e o venda para essas empresas interessadas pelo valor da desapropriação, então a prefeitura não precisaria gastar dinheiro”, afirma Segalla. “Na desapropriação você pode pagar um valor mais justo pro imóvel, sem um valor especulativo”.

A desapropriação de imóveis urbanos consta no Plano Diretor Participativo (PDP) para casos de abandono de imóvel ou falta de interesse declarada pelo proprietário. Em seu Programa de Revitalização na Área Central, o documento estabelece diretrizes para o desenvolvimento equilibrado do centro de Bauru “com a criação de incentivos para habitação e incentivos fiscais para a readequação de imóveis desocupados para finalidade residencial”.

“O Estatuto da Cidade prevê os critérios para desapropriação”, explica Jair Pinheiro, cientista político e professor na Unesp de Marília, em referência à Lei Federal 10.257 que foi aprovada em 2001. “Tem dois tipos: a desapropriação para fins de habitação popular e a desapropriação onerosa, que é a partir de um certo grau de abandono ou de dívida”.

Na semana seguinte ao pronunciamento de Segalla (DEM) na Câmara, o vereador Benedito Meira (PSB) lembrou o incêndio ocorrido em um prédio na cidade de São Paulo, e chamou atenção para que sejam tomadas medidas preventivas nos edifícios abandonados em Bauru.

Os vereadores José Roberto Segalla (DEM), à esquerda, e Benedito Meira (PSD), à direita (Fotos: Assessoria de Imprensa/Câmara Municipal)

“A prefeitura assume o ônus e livra o proprietário, se é um imóvel abandonado, aliás, livra o proprietário com lucro porque era uma propriedade que não tava dando lucro algum. Resolve o problema da construção civil e o problema do proprietário que tem um mico na mão”, argumenta Jair.

Sobre a questão habitacional, o professor defende que não é algo possível de ser solucionado com medidas pontuais. “Quando o Estado fornece habitação para um grupo de moradores, ele resolveu o problema daquele grupo, não resolveu o problema habitacional. O problema habitacional requer uma solução sistêmica”.

Depois de terem passado pela reintegração de posse do Estrela de Davi, que ficava na Quinta da Bela Olinda, Nilza e o marido estão pensando em mudar de cidade. “Isso é uma coisa que eu pus na minha cabeça, eu vou embora de Bauru. Não tem condição de emprego, não tem empresa”.

“Eu tô num quartinho na casa do meu filho, que ele abriu um espaço. Eu não tinha como tirar minha casa de lá porque eu construí”, conta Nilza, que ergueu uma casa de alvenaria no assentamento. “Eu tive que deixar minhas coisas pra trás, porque eu não tinha casa pra voltar”.

Segundo Majô Jandreice, chefe de Gabinete da Prefeitura, ainda não há previsão para a construção de indústrias ou empreendimentos residenciais naquele terreno. “Não sei nem porque tiraram a gente da Quinta da Bela Olinda sendo que a prefeitura podia vender pra gente os lotes”, relembra Nilza. “A casa onde eu morava, eu deixei pé de fruta carregado, a máquina passou em cima e derrubou tudo. Eu chorei. É assim, a esperança seria essa, seria a gente conseguir”.

(Foto: Lucas Rodrigues Alves da Silva/Reprodução)

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