Memórias de 2013: As Jornadas de Junho (Parte 1)

Buscando contribuir um pouco para os registros de nossa história, colunista do J2 publica lembranças dos protestos de junho de 2013 e as consequências políticas do movimento na cidade

Publicado em 10 de julho de 2019

"As cerca de 10 mil pessoas foram conduzidas para uma passeata, com direito a Hino nacional cantado em frente ao Confiança da Getúlio Vargas" (Foto: Reprodução/Facebook)
Por Arthur Castro, colunista do Jornal Dois

O ano de 2013 marcou o país de uma forma significativa. Os protestos conhecidos como Jornadas de Junho foram uma ruptura na sociedade, e depois deles o Brasil nunca mais voltou a ser o mesmo. E nem a cidade de Bauru.

Antes de prosseguir, esse colunista deseja deixar claro que participou ativamente dos acontecimentos e não possui quaisquer arrependimentos. Discordo completamente da narrativa petista de que tudo foi um golpe articulado pelos Estados Unidos para encerrar os “anos dourados” dos governos do PT. Essa é uma explicação delirante e difamatória, que cumpre um papel conservador de esmagar qualquer alternativa radical ao Capitalismo.

É evidente, contudo, que esse processo não foi perfeito. A propósito, nenhum é. Em qualquer parte do mundo, em qualquer período da história, revoltas e revoluções nunca ocorreram de modo idealista, mas com profundas disputas internas e posições diversificadas, progressistas ou não. O Brasil não poderia ser exceção.

Ao longo desse texto, tentarei ser tão preciso quanto minha memória permitir, mas evitarei ao máximo nomear indivíduos ou coletividades – salvo exceções que julgar necessárias. Dividirei ele em três partes. A Parte I – esta aqui – vai introduzir e contextualizar o ano de 2013 no Brasil, além de explicar a situação em Bauru anterior aos protestos. Na Parte II, irei trazer a tona o momento mais forte das manifestações, onde a população estava em peso nas ruas bauruenses e as principais conquistas foram alcançadas. Na Parte III, que é a última, vou jogar luz sobre os problemas internos que ocorreram, as discussões e as consequências para a cidade, que continuam até os dias de hoje.

É possível que alguns personagens envolvidos leiam esse relato e tenham divergências. Isso é natural. Esse texto não tem pretensão de ser uma análise de conjuntura politicamente correta, mas sim um relato pessoal sobre o que ocorreu em nossa história municipal.

Contexto nacional 

Eu acompanhei com atenção quando o Movimento Passe Livre (MPL) começou a organizar protestos  nacionalmente contra os aumentos da tarifa de ônibus, de metrô e às vezes de outros transportes. Milhares de pessoas, em sua maioria jovens ligados à organizações de esquerda, tomavam as ruas das cidades exigindo um recuo nos preços absurdos. O MPL, para quem não conhece, era um movimento social com foco na luta por um transporte público gratuito, e sempre se posicionou abertamente como esquerda, tendo entre seus membros socialistas assumidos, incluindo anarquistas e marxistas. Para garantir uma massa forte nos atos, haviam formado uma ampla aliança de organizações e partidos políticos, indo da centro-esquerda à extrema esquerda.

As manifestações tinham como tática o fechamento de ruas e avenidas, o que gerou uma reação brutal por parte dos governos municipais e estaduais. Em São Paulo, Fernando Haddad (PT) e Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) cooperaram para esmagar a luta, sob os aplausos da grande mídia – importante colocar que o Comandante-Geral da PM paulista era o atual vereador bauruense Coronel Meira (PSB). No Rio de Janeiro, a violência policial teve como mandantes o prefeito Eduardo Paes e o governador Sérgio Cabral, ambos do PMDB. Em terras sulistas, o governador do Rio Grande do Sul Tarso Genro (PT) ordenou a invasão da sede da Federação Anarquista Gaúcha por parte da polícia.

As agressões foram tão absurdas – atingindo até jornalistas – que a população brasileira se indignou e tomou às ruas em solidariedade. Milhões marcharam contra o aumento abusivo da tarifa, forçando prefeitos e governadores a recuarem, e deixando em choque a presidência, o Congresso, o Judiciário e a imprensa burguesa. A polícia foi colocada em cheque, sendo forçada a fugir do povo em fúria. Datena e Jabour foram humilhados em rede nacional. O clima era de esperança e mudança.

Mas então começaram a surgir discursos à direita nos atos. Esse momento é polêmico, pois envolve algumas reflexões. De fato, os gritos de “sem partido” provavelmente tiveram início com organizações de direita, mas encontraram eco no senso comum da população de que “partido político é tudo igual”. Por mais que militantes de esquerda, com todas as suas divergências, saibam as diferenças do Psol para o PSDB, por exemplo, muitos setores da população não o sabiam. Para o cidadão comum, “político é tudo corrupto” e bandeiras partidárias erguidas eram mero oportunismo. Os grupos conservadores souberam taticamente se aproveitar disso para manobrar contra a esquerda.

Gostaria de ressaltar que apesar de eu ser um anarquista – e nesse sentido rejeitar toda forma de governo e as eleições -, não estou em desacordo com a realidade. Eu não voto em candidatos de esquerda, mas sei que tenho muitas pautas e acordos comuns com militantes partidários inseridos nas lutas populares e movimentos sociais. Mas isso é assunto para outra hora.

O fato é que quando a Globo começou a exaltar as manifestações e o discurso anti-partido, articulado pela direita, ganhou força, o MPL anunciou o fim dos atos. Se foi acertado ou não, a história dirá. O que posso concluir é que a partir daí ocorre uma decadência a nível nacional das manifestações. Exceções aconteceram, como no Rio de Janeiro, onde os protestos se tornaram contra a Copa do Mundo e as Olimpíadas – que não abordarei agora.

Não concordo com a leitura divulgada pela mídia liberal de que as Jornadas de Junho acabaram por causa da violência dos Black Blocs. Nada mais falso. As ações radicalizadas ocorreram durante todo o período, do início ao fim, e isso nunca impediu a população em peso de participar. Essa narrativa pacificadora não corresponde à realidade, até porque em Bauru não houve um único caso de depredação e mesmo assim os atos foram diminuindo. Existem também alguns teóricos centristas que argumentam que Junho foi o nascimento de uma “nova política”, contra as velhas polarizações. Outra falsidade. Desde o início os atos foram construídos e preparados por socialistas em geral, anarquistas e marxistas. Sempre estiveram à esquerda, bem mais radicalizada.

Ainda falta uma análise mais aprofundada sobre o que foi 2013, para além das legitimações ideológicas deste ou daquele grupo. Mas não é minha intenção fazê-lo, e sim apenas apresentar o contexto no qual Bauru estava inserida.

O início dos protestos em Bauru

Em 2013 eu estava com os meus 21 anos, segundo ano do curso de Direito. Havia me tornado anarquista aos 15, mas apenas comecei a frequentar os espaços políticos com 18 anos. Eu era novo e não tinha boa parte da compreensão política que tenho hoje, mas as lembranças que tenho dessa época me dizem que se tratava de um tempo bem diferente para quem se tornou de esquerda em 2014 ou 2015. A maior parte da população não sabia o que era esquerda e direita e nem se interessavam em saber. Feminismo não havia se popularizado, direita significava votar no PSDB e “bandido bom é bandido morto” era comum até em eleitores do PT. O colunista Reinaldo Azevedo e a Revista Veja eram os exemplos de direitista radical. Jair Bolsonaro era um personagem excêntrico do CQC e que só tinha apoio de neonazistas e integralistas.

Em Bauru, só haviam duas organizações que eu via de forma constante nas ruas, de orientação trotskista: a Esquerda Marxista, à época no PT, e o PSTU. O Psol era um partido minúsculo e quase inexistente. Mas como eu disse, era novo e pode ser que houvessem outros grupos que eu não conhecera – e por isso minha impressão pode ser equivocada.

Eu somava desde 2012 com uma frente de combate contra o aumento da tarifa, que promovia atividades na Esquina da Resistência, na Batista de Carvalho. No início de 2013, em conjunto com outros militantes, começamos a articular a construção de um Coletivo de Esquerda, independente de partidos, que agrupasse anarquistas, marxistas e socialistas em geral para intervenção na sociedade. Ele só foi ser oficialmente fundado no Dia do Trabalhador, o que fez ter como nome Coletivo Primeiro de Maio (não confundir com uma corrente psolista de mesmo nome). Éramos cerca de seis membros. Ainda não havíamos começado a agir enquanto organização quando tem início as Jornadas de Junho pelo país. 

A frente de combate contra aumento da tarifa decide convocar uma reunião para planejar atos na cidade – e eu, como um dos dez membros – contribuí com minhas opiniões sobre o local e a data do evento. Infelizmente, a data caiu em um dia em que teria prova na faculdade, e não pude ir. Olhando hoje, acredito que eu deveria ter faltado na avaliação e pedido prova substituta, porque foi decisivo. O evento começou a ter muitas confirmações, ganhando força e sendo obrigado, pelas circunstâncias, a se transformar em ato.

(Continua)



As colunas são um espaço de opinião. As posições e argumentos expressas neste espaço não necessariamente refletem o ponto de vista do JORNAL DOIS.

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  37. Fiquei bem curioso quanto ao final. No tempo, eu não me interessava nada por política e nem coisas ligadas a ela. Bem legal a matéria, nos ajuda entender bastante. Só fiquei curioso sobre o restante.

  38. Boa noite Companheiros!!Posso dizer que Bauru foi uma resistência,por mais contradições que se teve ,eu vejo que Bauru não foi mais mesma !!Seguimos firme.

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