Mais de 80 mil: abstenções em Bauru cresceram 39% desde 2016

82 mil bauruenses não votaram e cerca de 25 mil apertaram branco ou nulo nas eleições do dia 15 de novembro

Publicado em 19 de novembro de 2020

Voto de máscara, álcool em gel antes e depois: as eleições de 2020 (Arte: Bibiana Garrido/Jornal Dois com foto de Marcelo Camargo/AgênciaBrasil)
Por Bibiana Garrido

Seja pela descrença na política institucional, pelo sentimento da falta de representatividade, ou ambos, 82.473 bauruenses não compareceram às urnas no domingo (15) para eleger o próximo prefeito ou prefeita da cidade e sua Câmara de Vereadores. O número representa um aumento de 39% nas abstenções desde as últimas Eleições Municipais em 2016. Na ocasião, pouco mais de 59,3 mil pessoas se abstiveram. 

A esse dado, somados os 25 mil eleitores e eleitoras bauruenses que votaram nulo ou branco em 2020, temos 108.274 pessoas no município que não quiseram exercer o direito de escolha que se apresenta, no regime democrático, de quatro em quatro anos.

Mesmo antes do primeiro turno era esperado que o nível de abstenções fosse maior neste ano por conta da pandemia da covid-19. No Brasil inteiro, o não comparecimento nas Eleições Municipais bateu recorde dos últimos 20 anos: mais de 34 milhões de pessoas não votaram, o que dá mais ou menos 23% da população do país.  

Quem não vota

Os últimos dados disponíveis para traçar um perfil de quem deixa de votar nas eleições em Bauru são do pleito de 2016. A faixa etária de 30 a 34 anos é a campeã em abstenções na cidade, seguida pelas pessoas de 25 a 29 anos.

É gente solteira e que tem o ensino médio completo. 

Prefeito sim, vereador não

Há ainda que se mencionar que os votos brancos e nulos para vereador e vereadora em Bauru foram mais numerosos do que aqueles para escolher prefeito ou prefeita. 

A eleição do Executivo, com 14 nomes concorrendo, recebeu 10,6 mil votos brancos e 15,2 mil votos nulos. No Legislativo, com 456 candidaturas para as 17 vagas da Câmara Municipal, foram mais de 16,2 mil bancos e 14,4 mil nulos.

E por que não vota?

Mesmo considerando que o fator coronavírus possa ter influenciado as pessoas a ficarem em casa, o cientista político Maximiliano Vicente avalia a existência de uma “descrença generalizada na política”, que contribuiria para o desinteresse no voto e no processo eleitoral como um todo. 

“Acho que já cansou, né? Esse modelo que nós temos só nos coloca em evidência no dia da votação, ou seja, a cada dois anos você vota… e pronto. Se isola a Câmara, se isola o Governo, e as pessoas ficam com muita dificuldade de acompanhar o que fazem depois que foram eleitos”. 

Maximiliano relaciona a descrença da população à falta de uma educação política para que cidadãos e cidadãs possam “entender, na prática, que a política tem reflexos no cotidiano”, com a tomada de decisões sobre políticas e serviços públicos como a educação, saúde, transporte, água e esgoto. 

“Enquanto a norma do jogo for a democracia, ou você participa ou você fica de fora. A consciência política, acima de tudo, é exercer o papel de cidadão: eu faço parte do município, eu decido e participo da vida do município”, completa ele. 

Outro ponto para entender abstenções questiona se as pessoas, de fato, se sentem representadas pelos candidatos e candidatas disponíveis. Quem faz essa reflexão é Rafaela Jacques, integrante da Organização Anarquista Socialismo Libertário (OASL).

“A análise que a gente faz é de uma crise no sistema político eleitoral, porque a população não está se sentindo representada nem com o campo da direita, nem com o campo da esquerda. Essa disputa eleitoral não é eficaz e vai sempre atender a demanda da burguesia”, diz ela.

Para ilustrar o que seria a dita crise do modelo eleitoral, Rafaela faz uma comparação com o contexto da capital São Paulo em que Guilherme Boulos (PSOL), candidato da esquerda, aparece bem colocado na disputa do segundo turno com Bruno Covas (PSDB). 

“Chance dele ganhar é altíssima e existem propostas legais”, reconhece a militante. “Mas, como ele vai executar ou aprovar essas propostas? Sendo que a gente vive no capitalismo e quem manda é o capital. Então, pra um partido de esquerda poder atuar, vai precisar fazer parceria com a burguesia ou será boicotado por essa mesma burguesia”. 

Dá pra ser de outro jeito?

No ponto de vista anarquista é necessária a superação dos moldes atuais a partir da construção de movimentos de poder popular via Federalismo, sistema que funciona “de baixo para cima”, nas palavras de Rafaela. 

Para Max, a estrutura atual dificulta a renovação política: com o repasse do fundo partidário, são as próprias siglas que definem como será a distribribuição da verba de campanha. “Os partidos investem naquele que pode dar mais resultado, e os caciques políticos tradicionais, que estão mais na mídia, que vêm de eleição anterior, concentraram todo o poder econômico”.

O cientista político argumenta que, talvez, o xis da questão esteja em tentar limitar os partidos políticos dentro do sistema constitucional vigente. “Se no Congresso a gente tem mais de 20 partidos, duvido que existam 20 ideologias diferentes ali pra justificar isso. Então, acabam virando empresas e negócios, não um partido no sentido prático do termo”, completa ele

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