Mais de 18 mil trabalhadores são demitidos em Bauru durante a quarentena

Município tem saldo negativo na geração de empregos entre março e julho e a retomada das contratações se mostra lenta

Publicado em 07 de setembro de 2020

Arte: Ana Carolina Moraes / JORNAL DOIS
Por Ana Carolina Moraes e Lorenzo Santiago

Durante os primeiros quatro meses de pandemia do coronavírus, Bauru perdeu 2.934 postos de trabalho. Foram 18.854 trabalhadores demitidos entre os meses de março e julho na cidade; no mesmo período, as contratações ficaram em 15.920 pessoas. Estes são os dados divulgados pelo Cadastro Geral de Empregados e Desempregados (CAGED), do Ministério do Trabalho.

Os resultados do município neste período refletem o panorama do trabalho no Brasil. Os efeitos da crise sanitária extrapolam as dimensões políticas e de saúde pública. A quarentena e o distanciamento social foram fatores determinantes no balanço de trabalho desde que foi decretado estado de calamidade pública no país

Os números variam de região para região. Nos locais com maior proporção de trabalhadores formais, os efeitos da Covid-19 tiveram maior impacto para a contagem de empregados com carteira assinada. O sudeste, por exemplo, teve uma movimentação maior no número de empregados formais. Nos meses de maior retração (abril e maio), a região liderou os dados de desempregados, enquanto em momentos de recuperação dos empregos (junho), a região esteve a frente dos números de contratações. Isso porque a região é a que mais concentra trabalhadores com carteira assinada no país

Balanço negativo

Nesse contexto, Bauru teve um balanço negativo. Ainda em março, a cidade contabilizava 5.013 pessoas admitidas e 4.982 demitidas, tendo um saldo de 31 novos postos de trabalho. Neste mês, o setor com melhor desempenho foi a construção civil, que empregou 227 pessoas; o pior foi o comércio, com um saldo de 110 trabalhadores demitidos. 

Com o avanço da doença em todo o estado e o início das medidas mais restritivas de isolamento, os índices tiveram uma queda brusca em abril: foram 1.399 contratados e 4.545 demitidos, com um saldo negativo de 3.146 postos de trabalho na cidade. Todas as áreas sofreram retração, sendo o setor de serviços o mais afetado, com 1.647 trabalhadores a menos empregados formalmente. O agronegócio já é naturalmente o que menos emprega no município e mesmo assim teve saldo negativo: cinco trabalhadores deixaram o mercado de trabalho.

Em maio a queda se manteve na cidade. Mesmo na fase amarela da quarentena, Bauru teve dados ruins para o número de trabalhadores em empregos formais: ao todo foram menos 1.168 pessoas empregadas, sendo o setor de serviços novamente o que teve maior retração, com 439 trabalhadores desempregados.

Os dois meses seguintes (junho e julho) mostram uma recuperação dos números. Em junho a cidade passou direto da fase amarela para a fase vermelha no Plano São Paulo. Mesmo com o endurecimento das medidas restritivas, Bauru teve um número positivo de 815 novos trabalhadores e em julho, 534. 

Em queda

A queda no número de postos de trabalho não recuperados expõe uma crise sem precedentes em escala nacional. Mais de 6 milhões de pessoas foram demitidas desde o começo da pandemia em todo o Brasil. Um número muito alto se considerar que, antes da pandemia, a taxa de desemprego no Brasil estava na margem de 12,2%. De lá para cá, o saldo foi de menos 1,4 milhão postos de trabalho ocupados. 

Assim como em Bauru, os meses de abril e maio foram os piores para o Brasil como um todo. Em abril 927.598 postos de trabalho foram fechados em todo o país.

Em entrevista à Carta Capital, a economista e professora da USP, Laura Carvalho destaca que a crise não é gerada por quem está tentando frear o número de contágios, mas pela própria pandemia e isso exigiria uma intervenção grande do Estado na economia:

“A economia brasileira já vivia uma fragilidade muito grave e persistente desde 2015 com dois anos de recessão profunda e depois uma estagnação desigualitária, com mais pobres perdendo renda e os do meio e topo ganhando renda lentamente. Em um país que, além disso, ainda tem uma informalidade recorde, a pandemia tem efeitos mais graves. Esse cenário exigiria uma resposta do Estado de magnitude muito maior do que a gente viu em outros países. Ainda que tenha tido essa resposta do governo, ela não está a altura do desafio que temos hoje”, ressalta a professora.

Perfil

A escolaridade foi sintomática para entender quem são os maiores afetados pelo desemprego em Bauru. Os trabalhadores com ensino médio completo tiveram um maior índice de demissões. O número é compreensível na medida em que se observam os setores com maior queda: comércio e serviços, ambos que empregam grande quantidade de funcionários com esse nível de escolaridade. 

O cenário é significativo a partir do momento que esses trabalhadores são essenciais para grande parte das famílias brasileiras. Da população economicamente ativa, 23,4%  possuem o ensino médio completo, fatia que, segundo dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), tinha uma média salarial de R$ 1.771,47 em 2016. 

O recorte de sexo na cidade de Bauru também traz um retrato dos efeitos da pandemia em cada grupo da população. Os homens tiveram uma redução de 1.519 postos de trabalho durante a pandemia, enquanto as mulheres passaram por uma baixa de 1.415. 

Outro aspecto significativo foi a faixa etária. Nos últimos quatro meses a população com idades entre 25 e 39 anos foi a que mais sofreu com o desemprego. Em seguida estão os jovens entre 18 e 24 anos. Os dois grupos etários correspondem a 65,3% daqueles que estavam desempregados no segundo trimestre de 2020 no Brasil, segundo a PNAD Contínua.

Retomada

Com a flexibilização da quarentena, as atividades econômicas mostram pequenos sinais de recuperação. Em junho, mês marcado pela reabertura comercial na cidade, que possibilitou o funcionamento do comércio, de restaurantes, dos escritórios, das academias, entre outros, 3.859 pessoas foram contratadas em Bauru. Esse foi o primeiro mês com saldo positivo na geração de empregos – o mês terminou com 815 novos postos de trabalho. No mês seguinte, o feito se repetiu: mais 534 vagas de trabalho foram criadas em julho. 

O perfil dos trabalhadores que estão voltando ao mercado de trabalho é de jovens (com idades entre 18 e 24 anos) com o ensino médio completo. No mês de junho, chamou a atenção a quantidade de mulheres contratadas: foram 574 trabalhadoras, contra 241 de homens empregados. Já em julho, o cenário se inverteu drasticamente: apenas 63 mulheres conseguiram um emprego, e 471 homens foram contratados. 

A parcela dos trabalhadores entre 30 e 39 anos, que foi mais demitida durante o período, figura em segundo lugar na lista dos mais contratados. Entretanto, a diferença entre os grupos por faixa etária é significativa: em junho, 1.382 pessoas entre 18 e 24 anos foram contratadas; entre os trabalhadores de 30 e 39 anos foram admitidos 928 pessoas – uma diferença de 31%. O dado aponta que a população de 30 a 39 anos pode ter mais dificuldade para voltar ao mercado de trabalho. 

Para além da lenta retomada, a reabertura comercial também se mostra perigosa: os meses pós-reabertura vem alcançando sucessivos recordes de infecções por coronavírus e de mortes pela doença. De 177 novos casos registrados em maio, este dado saltou para 3.201 em agosto; com relação às mortes, foram registrados oito novos casos em maio e, em agosto o número de 67 novos óbitos. Para acompanhar a evolução da Covid-19 em Bauru, clique aqui e acesse esta matéria. 

Laura Carvalho, explica que essa retomada ineficiente das atividades econômicas tem impacto direto sobre a manutenção do desemprego: “O que a gente viu foi uma pandemia que não foi controlada, com medidas muito frouxas. E essa reabertura precoce deixa tanto produtores quanto consumidores muito inseguros ainda na sua capacidade de voltar ao normal” destaca a professora.

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