Existem três carnavais e você não compreende nenhum deles

Importância econômica, cultural e social do Carnaval no Brasil deve ser levada em consideração ao discutir o seu cancelamento

Publicado em 26 de novembro de 2021

Carnaval em Bauru é marcado pelos desfiles do Sambódromo; em 2022, a tradição corre o risco de ser interrompida (Foto: Jornal Dois/Reprodução)
Por Tobias Terceiro*

Primeiro, o carnaval como evento: no Brasil, o maior evento popular do país é responsável por gerar empregos. Segundo o levantamento da Confederação Nacional do Comércio de Bens, Serviços e Turismo (CNC), estima-se que, em 2020 (último ano de desfiles), 25,4 mil vagas temporárias foram abertas para ocupações entre janeiro e fevereiro. O evento movimenta setores ligados ao turismo, como alimentação (garçons, barmen, copeiros, cozinheiros e outros auxiliares de cozinha), transportes e hotelaria, atividades artísticas e de lazer, e agências de viagens – sem contar bordadeiras, fabricantes de fantasias, estamparias, serralheiros, soldadores, marceneiros, eletricistas, borracheiros, mecânicos, engenheiros e demais atividades relacionadas diretamente aos desfiles de escolas de samba e blocos, segundo o livro “Cadeia Produtiva do Carnaval”, organizado por Luiz Carlos Prestes Filho.

Além de verba pública, os eventos nas cidades também recebem dinheiro por meio de patrocínios e parcerias com a iniciativa privada. Em Bauru, não há reajuste desde 2018, mesmo com inflação e, pasme, entre escolas de samba e empresa licitante de infraestrutura, a menor parcela é a que fica com as primeiras. Boa parte dos investimentos públicos se direciona para a infraestrutura da cidade, a segurança, a organização do sambódromo, o receptivo de turistas e a decoração.

A renda, a circulação e a oxigenação econômica exercida por essas atividades do setor terciário, em uma época de vacas magras para as populações mais vulneráveis, geram receita para poder investir em todos os setores. Segundo o último levantamento da mesma CNC, em 2020 o carnaval teve um impacto de R$ 7,91 bilhões na economia nacional (em uma projeção pessimista).

O evento também aumenta o fluxo de turistas estrangeiros. Segundo dados da Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil (ANAC), em 2018, cerca de 870 mil estrangeiros vieram ao Brasil em fevereiro, mês do Carnaval naquele ano. Esse número representa 13,1% de todos os desembarques internacionais em 2018.

Segundo, o carnaval como feriado. Sim, ele é um feriado estipulado em calendário oficial e quer você concorde ou não, isto é uma realidade da qual você se aproveita (e não reconhece) ao maratonar suas séries em serviços de streaming, viajar, sair para festejar, ir ao retiro e afins.

Terceiro, o carnaval como manifestação. Comecemos conceituando: o termo cultura, antropologicamente, designa “modo de vida” – e isso engloba toda a diversidade de hábitos, costumes, religiões, práticas, tradições e afins. Isto é um conceito científico e atual. Não existe cultura melhor ou pior, superior ou inferior. Existem culturas distintas, com traços, nuances, interferências e múltiplas compreensões de mundo. Quando você diz que o carnaval é uma cultura pobre, você está sendo tendencioso(a) e preconceituoso(a) – isso porque você não está inserido nessa cultura e, além de julgá-la, também a discrimina, porque vê-la pela televisão não é vivenciá-la. Quando você entende que cultura clássica é parâmetro avaliativo para cultura popular, você só demonstra que não entende nada. 

Quando você demoniza a manifestação por ser um palco aberto (também) para a riqueza das religiões de matriz afro-brasileira (e todas e tantas outras), você está sendo intolerante e preconceituoso(a). Não me recordo de outra manifestação nacional que abrace todas as linguagens artísticas de forma tão natural quanto esta. Também há quem queira debater a etimologia do termo sem compreender que existe um processo natural de atualização constante e novas aplicações, usos e sentidos. Inclusive, o carnaval moderno não se conecta em muitos sentidos às manifestações que se coadunam para culminar no que praticamos hoje.

Microcosmo

Em Bauru, os registros sobre a festa do momo remontam à década de 1930 do século passado – a festividade se confunde com a história da própria cidade. Algo natural, visto que uma das maiores ondas de migração provém do Rio de Janeiro, graças à transferência da sede da NOB para cá.

Nosso sambódromo, o “Gilberto Carrijo”, fundado em 1990, foi o segundo sambódromo construído no país. Possui 600 metros de extensão e função única e exclusiva – ou deveria possuir, mas, isso é assunto para outro momento.

Nosso carnaval, quer você goste ou não, além de tradicional, é um dos maiores e melhores do interior e atrai milhares de turistas de outras cidades, estados e, inclusive, países. Não se trata de achismo: há estudos que corroboram estas informações, portanto isto é um fato, e não uma opinião. Graças ao retorno do evento, em 2010, reverteu o fluxo monetário: de lá para cá, o montante que saía da cidade para ser gasto em outras localidades passou a ficar e ser gasto no próprio município – acrescidos aos investimentos de quem vem de fora para isso. Essa arrecadação, somente em Bauru, retorna em torno de quatro a cinco vezes a mais do que o investimento feito pelo poder público para quem? Para o próprio poder público diversificar e ampliar investimentos em áreas como educação, saúde, transporte de qualidade e afins. Inclusive para você, que fala mal do carnaval, pois você também é cidadão.

Toda manifestação que cresça e ganhe relevância aos olhos do poder público por representar um extrato significativo da população, merece ser vista e receber apoio para que encontre infraestrutura e condições de se solidificar e se perpetuar, organizadamente. É assim com o Carnaval, a Parada da Diversidade, o aniversário da cidade, Marcha para Jesus, Expo, Semana do Hip-Hop, Natal, Réveillon e tantos outros eventos que parte da população desconhece, mas que ocorrem e são necessários porque fazem parte da cultura de outras parcelas da mesma sociedade e que possuem direitos também. Isto é viver em comunidade.

Se você não se identifica e não desfruta da cultura carnavalesca, tudo bem. É um direito seu. Mas, eu também não pertenço, tampouco desfruto de determinadas culturas e, nem por isso, quero coibir a sua existência ou cancelá-las pelo simples fato delas atenderem às demandas de uma parcela da sociedade na qual não estou inserido – e o mundo não gira em torno de minha compreensão limitada.

Por fim, a questão sanitária e de saúde pública deveriam ser prioridades em quaisquer circunstâncias. Aqui, não há negacionismo. Afinal, o bem coletivo deveria sobrepor os interesses individuais. Porém, atualmente, todos os setores estão liberados (estádios de futebol, fórmula 1, praias, shoppings, bares, igrejas, escolas, ônibus, metrôs, Natal, Revéillon, shows com 12 mil pessoas sem máscara em Bauru, por exemplo), mas, na visão de uma parte da população sem propriedade comprovada do que fala e embasamento algum, a culpa, tendenciosa e diretamente, é ligada ao carnaval, sem que ele sequer tenha acontecido. Pau que bate em Chico bate em Francisco?

*Tobias Terceiro é presidente do Grêmio Recreativo Estação Primeiro de Agosto.
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