Empregadas domésticas são obrigadas a sair de casa para trabalhar sem condições de segurança contra o coronavírus

“A situação infelizmente é essa: ou você vai trabalhar ou é demitida”, afirma trabalhadora

Publicado em 01 de junho de 2020

Empregadas domésticastem um prefil definido no Brasil: são mulheres e, em sua maioria, negras (Colagem: Letícia Sartori/JORNALDOIS sob HQ Confinada/Leandro Assis e Triscila Oliveira)
Por Lorenzo Santiago

Em meio à pandemia do novo coronavírus, milhões de trabalhadores sofreram cortes bruscos nos salários, foram demitidos ou estão saindo de casa para trabalhar entregues à própria sorte. Nesse contexto, cresce o número de casos da doença emtodo o Brasil. O trabalho informal foi um dos setores mais atingidos pelas mudanças na economia. 

O Brasil superou, no último dia 31, a marca de 29.341 mortos pela Covid-19. Desde 23 de março, o estado de São Paulo vive sob o distanciamento social, que fechou parte do comércio e dos serviços, mantendo aberto apenas os essenciais e o sistema de delivery dos restaurantes e lanchonetes. Depois de mais de 2 meses, Bauru começa nesta segunda-feira (1) uma saída gradual da quarentena, reabrindo o comércio de rua, salões de beleza, pequenos restaurantes, bares e lanchonetes. 

Para quem teve que sair de casa nesse período, o saldo não foi positivo. Somália Straus é empregada doméstica há três anos. Assim que a quarentena começou, ela teve férias de 20 dias. Mesmo trabalhando dentro de uma casa e pegando ônibus para se deslocar, não houve acordo com o patrão e ela voltou a trabalhar no dia 13 de abril, quando Bauru registrava sua 4ª morte pelo coronavírus. 

Somália explica que poucas coisas mudaram na rotina de trabalho durante a pandemia: “O que teve de diferente, principalmente, foi o uso da máscara e tentar manter distância dentro da casa. Além disso, eu levo um álcool em gel na minha bolsa por causa do ônibus, mas de resto nada mudou”, destaca a doméstica. 

Com 58 anos, Somália pode ser considerada grupo de risco. Cerca de 15% das mortes por coronavírus no Brasil acontecem em pessoas na faixa dos 50 aos 59 anos de idade. Ela expressou o medo do contágio, mas a saída encontrada pelos empregadores foi não manter o isolamento e buscar Somália de carro para ir para o serviço:

“Dá uma preocupação, porque a máscara te protege, mas não é 100% seguro. Mas a situação infelizmente é essa: ou você vai trabalhar ou é demitida”, desabafa. 

Ela faz parte do grupo de domésticas que têm carteira assinada no Brasil. Segundo os dados do Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea), em 2018 o país tinha 6,1 milhões de pessoas que trabalhavam com serviço de limpeza de casas. Dessas, 91,7% são mulheres e 64,7% são negras. 

Apesar do longo processo de formalização e ampliação dos direitos – que culminou na PEC das Domésticas, de 2013 – o trabalho doméstico no Brasil persiste, em sua maioria, informal. Menos de um terço (30,4%) trabalham com carteira assinada.

Tabela divulgada em pesquisa do Ipea apresenta os dados da quantidade de trabalhadores na informalidade em 2018.

O trabalho doméstico é um dos serviços que mais tem trabalhadores informais em todo o Brasil. A perversidade deste modelo não está só nos números, mas na relações trabalhistas. Célia Aparecida Nogueira, 40, é um exemplo disso. Assim que começou a quarentena ela já viu o número de diárias diminuir. A única patroa que manteve seu serviço mandou ela não pegar outros trabalhos para evitar o contágio do coronavírus. Mesmo assim a sua rotina pouco mudou: 

“Eu só ia duas vezes por semana, mas nesse período minha patroa pediu pra ir mais e acabou me ajudando, porque subiu o salário. Quando o primeiro caso chegou em Bauru ela já mandou eu usar a máscara. Ela tinha duas empregadas, mas dispensou uma e eu fiquei porque moro perto e não preciso pegar ônibus. Também não quis que eu pegasse outra casa, falou que cobria o valor que me oferecessem”, explicou Célia. 

A incerteza em relação ao novo vírus dita o comportamento do brasileiro nesse período. Sem uma vacina, métodos para a erradicação da doença ou remédios para o combate, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) orienta que o isolamento social, no momento, é a principal forma de controle da Covid-19. Por isso, sair de casa para trabalhar se torna uma incerteza para trabalhadores que não tem o respaldo dos direitos de uma carteira assinada:

“É um risco muito grande, eu tenho medo, mas que que eu vou fazer? Preciso trabalhar, não sou registrada. Eu preciso pagar aluguel”, conta Célia. 

As duas empregadas tem um perfil parecido: mães solo que moram com a única filha. 

“Sair do sufoco”

O trabalho doméstico no Brasil apresenta dois universos em uma mesma forma de exclusão. A minoria com carteira assinada recebe, em média, R$ 1.296,00 por mês. Já a maioria das domésticas (que trabalha sem registro) tem vencimentos médios de R$692,30. Neste contexto, para as trabalhadoras que mantiveram seus empregos, o auxílio emergencial de R$ 600,00 do Governo Federal foi um alívio em um ambiente de insegurança financeira: 

“Eu recorri ao auxílio emergencial e isso já me ajudou muito, deu pra sair do sufoco nesse período. Veio uma parcela em abril mas a segunda ainda não”, relata Célia.  

Em Bauru foram 59.199 cadastros aprovados para receber a quantia do governo, 16% da população. O valor está abaixo do percentual de brasileiros que recorreram ao auxílio: 50.230.608 de pedidos (23,9% da população nacional). O número expressa a dimensão das desigualdades do município, que tem grande parte de trabalhadores saindo de suas casas para enfrentar a insegurança no trabalho, e um vírus que já matou mais de 367 mil pessoas em todo o mundo – o equivalente a população total de Bauru. 

A Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Turismo e Renda de Bauru (SEDECON) realizou um censo socioeconômico nos últimos dois meses para calcular o impacto da quarentena na economia do município. A pasta pretende divulgar o estudo na primeira quinzena de junho. A reportagem entrou em contato com a secretária Aline Fogolin, que não quis comentar a situação dos trabalhadores.

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