O valor das multas está baseado nas infrações cometidas pelos carros e pode chegar até R$130 reais

Desde 1997, a penalização de ciclistas e pedestre estava previsa no Código de Trânsito Brasileiro (Foto: Reprodução/Bike Brothers Bauru)

Por Maria Esther Castedo


Bauru não é diferente da maioria das cidades brasileiras quando a questão é estrutura cicloviária. A soma da malha cicloviária não chega perto de cidades modelo no exterior, como indica o levantamento feito pela ONG Mobiliza Brasil. Para se ter uma ideia, em 2016 foi criada a primeira ciclorrota, ruas que são mais indicadas para as bicicletas e que estimulam o compartilhamento da via com outros meios de transporte. Bauru ainda se estrutura para um trânsito inclusivo, e com a lei, ele vai ficar mais rigoroso.

Prevista no Código de Trânsito Brasileiro (CTB), a medida para penalização de ciclistas e pedestres é de 1997. Mas somente em outubro do ano passado, o Conselho Nacional de Trânsito (Contran) determinou sua regularização. Veja no infográfico o que é considerado infração:

Em Bauru, ainda não há nada definido sobre como a multa vai ser cobrada (Imagem: Maria Esther Castedo/JORNAL DOIS)

A multa para os pedestres é considerada leve e no valor de R$ 44,19 (metade da infração leve dos veículos). Já os ciclistas recebem a multa de R$130,16. Eles se enquadram na infração média e podem ter a bicicleta apreendida pelo agente de trânsito. Só pode recuperar o proprietário da própria bike e munido do comprovante de pagamento da multa.

Questionada sobre a aplicação da multa, a Empresa Municipal de Desenvolvimento Urbano e Rural de Bauru (EMDURB), por meio da Rosana Fregolente assessora de comunicação, disse que “por ser um assunto novo, não tem nada definido.” O presidente Elizeu Eclair, assim que a lei foi regularizada, disse que seria necessário dobrar a quantidade de agentes de trânsito para atender essa demanda.

Quem anda na rua?

Para Fábio Eduardo, membro do Pedala Bauru, a lei está ultrapassada. “Ela foi pensada em um tempo distante. E isso é um grande problema, porque ao longo do tempo construímos a cidade e toda a estrutura viária pensando exclusivamente no trânsito dos motorizados, principalmente no individual, nos carros. A lógica do trânsito é pensada para os motoristas, não para os ciclistas, pedestres ou transporte coletivo.”

Há 20 anos, Fábio usa a bike como forma de deslocamento pela cidade, e assegura, 90% de sua locomoção é feita por esse transporte. E essa escolha o fez criar o Pedala Bauru, coletivo que desde 2010 trabalha e pensa na mobilidade ativa na cidade. Ele explica que essa categoria abrange: “aquela em que somente é usado o corpo humano para se locomover, como correr, andar de patins, bicicleta, skate, enfim.”

Segundo dados da EMDURB, a cidade possui 11 km de ciclovias, 30 km de ciclofaixas (nela incluídas aquelas para lazer, como a da avenida Getúlio Vargas e Dr. Marcos de Paula Raphael, em que ambas funcionam somente aos domingos e em horário restrito) e as de trabalho. Em número de ciclorrotas, os ciclistas podem usar seis ruas: José Fernandes, Agenor Meira e Américo Blóis, que formam um só eixo, Aviador Gomes Ribeiro, Sete de Setembro e Gérson França. Mas elas estão desgastadas e não seguem todo o padrão do Contran. Em comparação com outras cidades do interior, Sorocaba possui mais de 100km de plano cicloviário e oferece um sistema de empréstimo de bicicletas de graça.

Planejamento e suporte também são fatores que entram nessa conta, inclusive no âmbito privado. “A infraestrutura cicloviária precisa mais que disponibilizar vias para as bicicletas, deve procurar atender as demandas potenciais, ligando principalmente origens e destinos de maior volume, bem como proporcionar uma boa integração com outros modos de transportes”, analisa Archimedes Raia Jr, doutor em Engenharia de Transportes da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (Ufscar).

E quando chega nos lugares, que estruturas o ciclista precisa? O professor aponta que vestiários e banheiros são essenciais. Fábio concorda: “no local de trabalho, por exemplo, a empresa não pensa no ciclista, não tem um banheiro onde possa tomar banho ou guardar seus pertences. Tem que ter uma construção geral, todos precisam pensar.”

Ciclistas que dirigirem pela calçada serão multados (Foto: Maria Esther Castedo/JORNAL DOIS)

Aplicação da lei em Bauru

Ciclistas que dirigirem nas calçadas ou na contramão quando não há via específica (como ciclovia, ciclofaixa e ciclorrota), serão multados. Em Bauru, essa prática é comum. O integrante do Pedala Bauru defende que “o ciclista não anda na calçada porque quer, anda para se proteger. Então se não tem uma estrutura pensada pra bicicleta, como vou multar um ciclista que está tentando preservar sua vida?”

Se meus filhos vierem, vou fazer eles andarem na calçada

É o que também argumenta César Martins, engenheiro que há um ano anda de bicicleta por Bauru. Usando capacete, luvas, roupa especial para a prática e com luzes instaladas na bike, ele comenta que não deixaria os filhos andarem nas ruas por não haver ciclofaixas por toda cidade e por segurança. “Vejo que falta educação, respeito com os ciclistas, antes de regularizar tem que educar. Agora vai ficar mais difícil pra gente.”

A aplicação da lei pode gerar dúvidas porque está passível de multa o ciclista que praticar uma “direção agressiva”, mas o Contran não detalha o que se encaixa nessa definição. “Fica muito à disposição da interpretação do agente [de trânsito], essa direção agressiva pode ser uma manobra que coloque em risco a vida de um pedestre, passe por um veículo de maneira imprópria, freie bruscamente ou passe por outro ciclista e deixe-o desequilibrado. Então fica muito subjetiva, ficando à interpretação daquele que vai fiscalizar”, afirma Marcos Farto, especialista em trânsito.

Melhoras nas condições para pedestres bauruenses também exigem investimentos do poder público. O professor Archimedes comenta que, historicamente, pouco têm sido feito para diversificar os modais de trânsito.

“Apesar da Lei 9050, atualizada em 2004, que trata da acessibilidade a edificações, mobiliário, espaços e equipamentos urbanos, já existir há vários anos, estamos ainda muito longe de atingir-se um patamar minimamente aceitável de sua aplicação”, explica o professor.

Somente em 2017, aconteceram 123 atropelamentos em Bauru, dos quais 22 vítimas morreram. A maioria são adultos do sexo masculino. Neste começo de ano, um idoso faleceu ao se envolver em um acidente entre carro e moto. Os número são do Setor de Estatísticas e Geoprocessamento na área urbana feitos pela EMDURB.

Como cobrar

“A primeira coisa que veio na cabeça é como vai multar, como vai chegar lá sem o ciclista e pedestre saber da lei?”, questiona Taís Martins, ciclista bauruense. O texto da lei diz que o fiscalizador deve exigir nome completo e documento de identificação do infrator. Quando possível, também o CPF, endereço e assinatura do ciclista ou pedestre.

Não está explícita a forma como vai ser feita a cobrança da multa. A lei deixa para as prefeituras e órgãos de trânsito de cada cidade, como as rodoviárias, Polícia Militar, Detrans e DNIT, definirem como autuar os cidadãos.

“Nisso barramos em outro problema, a Constituição Federal não obriga nenhum cidadão a andar com documento, obriga a identificar-se. Vamos partir para a Polícia Militar, ela aborda e exige sua documentação, a pessoa não dá o documento mas fala o nome. A pessoa lhe diz o CPF, mas será realmente dessa pessoa? A PM deverá ter uma plataforma onde possa ser conferido o nome e o número”, dificuldade exposta pelo Marcos.

Além disso, o especialista alerta que a lei pode aumentar o número de crimes de desacato. “No caso de agente municipal, o infrator pode desobedecê-lo e pode ocorrer conflitos. As delegacias vão ficar abarrotadas de ações de desacato, resistência. É uma matéria conflitante, você tem a lei mas não a ferramenta própria pra isso.”

Solução

Todos concordam que era necessário um processo de educação, desde que o código de trânsito brasileiro foi criado, em 1998. De maneira pedagógica, Fabio afirma que “deveria estar no currículo escolar, nas escolas e a que a gente converse sobre isso até a universidade”. Em algum momento, cada elemento do trânsito pode contribuir para a insegurança no trânsito, apesar do aprendizado. Mas como esse processo não acontece, “entendo que a fiscalização desses dois elementos do sistema (pedestre e ciclista), neste momento, é totalmente inoportuna e injusta”, completa Archimedes.

Em algum momento, todos os quase 210 milhões de brasileiros são pedestres.

O dinheiro arrecadado das multas deveria ser destinado também para educação, é o que aponta Marcos: “as campanhas municipais são muito tímidas e vergonhosas, como a entrega de panfleto, diante do que é arrecadado.” Prova disso são as situações de desrespeito no trânsito. Taís Martins passou por isso um pouco antes da entrevista. “Tinha uma placa escrita pare, somente eu [de bicicleta] e o carro não parou. Os carros podem até te enxergar, mas as pessoas não respeitam”, conta a arquiteta e ciclista bauruense.

Até abril, a Prefeitura de Bauru e órgãos de fiscalização precisam encontrar o melhor plano para regularização. Para o professor da Ufscar, a lei vai ser mais uma daquelas que não terá o efeito esperado. “Se o sistema de fiscalização de veículos motorizados já é extremamente ineficaz, no Brasil, o que falar da fiscalização de pedestres e ciclistas? Afinal, em algum momento, todos os quase 210 milhões de brasileiros são pedestres.”

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