Defasagem de estudantes pretos e indígenas em Bauru é duas vezes maior que a de brancos

Censo Escolar 2020 mostra que a desigualdade entre estudantes bauruenses é maior nos anos finais do ensino fundamental 

Publicado em 7 de maio de 2021

(Arte: Lenita Medeiros/Jornal Dois)
Por Michelly Neris
Edição Bibiana Garrido

Pretos e indígenas representam 2% dos estudantes do ensino básico em Bauru e têm a maior defasagem nas taxas de distorção idade-série se comparados a estudantes brancos. Nos anos finais do ensino fundamental, a defasagem chega 21,4% dos  estudantes indígenas e a 19% dos estudantes pretos. Entre estudantes brancos, o percentual é de 9,1% no mesmo período de ensino. 

A taxa indica o percentual de estudantes com dois anos ou mais acima do recomendado para o ano letivo e é influenciada pela reprovação e pelo abandono. Nos anos finais do ensino fundamental, indígenas e pretos apresentam as maiores taxas de distorção, seguidos por pardos e amarelos. No ensino médio, estudantes indígenas continuam com o maior percentual de distorção, e estudantes amarelos ultrapassam estudantes pretos. 

Os dados são do Censo Escolar 2020, realizado pelo Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (INEP). A pesquisa, que costuma ser feita no final de maio, foiadiantada para 11 de março de 2020 por conta da pandemia da covid-19.

(Arte: Lenita Medeiros/Jornal Dois)

A desigualdade é uma velha conhecida da educação brasileira. Márcia Lopes Reis, professora de pedagogia da Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp) em Bauru, explica que historicamente o acesso à escola foi dificultado para a população não branca. “No final do século 19, esses sujeitos são colocados nas ruas sem qualquer tipo de direito, somente por um contexto de pressão internacional, não é de se estranhar que a gente não tenha resolvido essa questão. Até porque, durante muito tempo essa escola pública, que deveria atendê-los, começa o século 20 atendendo algo como 0,1%”.

No final do século 19, apenas 0,09% da população negra sabia ler e escrever, enquanto 18,58% da população branca era alfabetizada. Ainda hoje, o analfabetismo entre os negros é maior do que entre os brancos, como mostra a Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua – PNAD Contínua de 2019. A taxa de analfabetismo entre pretos ou pardos com mais de 60 anos chega a 30,7%, na população branca, a taxa é de 11,6%. 

Um estudo realizado pelo Unicef com dados do Censo Escolar de 2017 mostra que estudantes negros, pardos e indígenas no país têm as maiores taxas de distorção idade-série. Assim como em Bauru, esse grupo apresenta percentuais muito maiores do que estudantes brancos.

O Censo ainda não permite avaliar os impactos da pandemia no ensino, já que a pesquisa foi realizada no início de março de 2020. Porém, o dia a dia do EAD nas escolas, bem como as pesquisas, sinaliza queda no aprendizado dos estudantes e aumento da desigualdade. 

Um relatório divulgado pelo Banco Mundial avaliou o crescimento da pobreza escolar durante a pandemia na América Latina e Caribe. O documento chama a atenção para a dificuldade de parte da população brasileira em acessar a internet:  75% dos indígenas, 65% dos negros e 61% dos pardos têm acesso à internet somente pelo celular. Entre a população branca, esse percentual é de 51%. O relatório aponta ainda que a proporção de estudantes negros que ficaram sem acesso às atividades escolares foi de 12,5%, quase o dobro dos 6,4% dos alunos não negros.

Desafios para a rede pública

Os efeitos da pandemia, segundo Márcia Lopes, são sentidos principalmente nas escolas públicas. E é no dia a dia do ensino à distância que as desigualdades ficam ainda mais evidentes. “Confinados nas nossas casas, essa desigualdade parece um pouco camuflada e ao mesmo tempo muito explícita, porque quando você dá aulas, você vê alunos com 6 pessoas na família e que tem que dividir um celular. A falta de infraestrutura e a falta de condições reflete e acentua essas desigualdades”.

A rede pública já apresentava problemas antes da pandemia. Dados do Censo 2020 mostram que a taxa de distorção no ensino fundamental das escolas públicas bauruenses é de 7,5%, enquanto a taxa da rede privada é de 2%. No ensino médio, a rede pública tem uma taxa de 11,6%, um pequeno aumento da distorção em relação a 2019, ano em que a taxa era de 11%. Já a rede privada diminui a taxa de 4,7% para 4,3%.

De acordo com levantamento da Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SEADE) feito com dados do Censo Escolar, em 2019, a taxa de abandono do ensino fundamental em Bauru e no estado é de 0,4%. No ensino médio, a taxa sobe para 2,1%, bem próxima à média do estado de 2%.  Um indicador que chama a atenção é o aumento da reprovação nos anos finais do ensino fundamental na rede municipal, que subiu de 7,6% em 2018 para 10,8% em 2019. Já na rede estadual, houve uma queda de 6,2% para 5,7%, no mesmo período.

(Arte: Lenita Medeiros/Jornal Dois)
Um ano de pandemia, dez anos de atraso

A abertura das escolas no momento em que o número de casos e mortes por covid-19 cresce de maneira acelerada coloca educadores e funcionários das escolas em risco. Um estudo feito pela Rede Escola Pública e Universidade (Repu) aponta que em 2021 ocorrência de covid-19 entre professores foi 3 vezes maior do que na população estadual de mesma faixa etária. 

O impacto do fechamento prolongado das escolas é imediato e será sentido por muitos anos. “A longo prazo, a gente vai perceber o quanto esse um ano e dois meses parados repercute numa dimensão que é como se para cada ano parado a gente tivesse em média dez anos de atraso”, estima Márcia Lopes.

O país ainda enfrenta o desafio de cumprir o Plano Nacional de Educação (PNE). Previsto na Constituição e na Lei de Diretrizes Básicas, o PNE estabelece metas educacionais e prazos para cumpri-las. É dele que derivam todos os planos estaduais e municipais. O Brasil tem até 2024 para executar metas de universalização e qualidade do ensino, alfabetização e aumento do número de matrículas ofertadas. 

“Essas metas vão ter que ser revistas. Isso não é impossível, mas precisa de uma ação orquestrada de governos, tanto no nível federal, estadual e municipal. Essas ações não vão ocorrer espontaneamente. Mais do que nunca políticas públicas vão ser importantíssimas pra gente superar e cumprir com a função social da escola pública”, analisa a educadora. 



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