Em defesa das liberdades democráticas, atividade planejada para dentro do campus aconteceu em frente à portaria (Foto: Leandro Siqueira/Reprodução)

Por Bibiana Garrido


Marcadas para a última quarta-feira (24) antes do 2° turno, duas atividades discutiriam o contexto político e eleitoral do país na Universidade Estadual Paulita (Unesp) em Bauru. Antes mesmo de começarem, foram notificadas pela administração do campus.

A programação, de início às 17h, contava com uma palestra sobre o avanço do fascismo e um debate sobre liberdades democráticas. As atividades eram de organizações distintas, e teriam como gancho as eleições 2018.

Não aconteceu como planejado. “A vice-diretora estava lá e disse que não poderia ser feito”, relata Roque Ferreira, membro do grupo responsável pelo debate, a Esquerda Marxista. “Ela alegou que seria proibido citar de nome de candidato”.

“Quando eu cheguei na Unesp tava bem complicado, falaram que tinham barrado a discussão”, lembra Arthur Castro, palestrante no evento d’A Outra Campanha. “Já tinha rolado coisa parecida em outras universidades brasileiras e acho que isso gerou medo na diretoria”.

Espaço em frente à biblioteca era o ponto de encontro; durante o ano, é local de assembleias do movimento estudantil e eventos culturais (Foto: Lucas Mendes/JORNAL DOIS)

Diante das condições apresentadas pela administração do campus, o debate Em Defesa das Liberdades Democráticas foi realizado do lado de fora. Leandro Silveira era um dos organizadores e lamenta o acontecido. “O nome da nossa atividade não tinha nada falando de partido, nem nome de ninguém, de nenhum candidato. Era um evento contra a perda dos direitos”, diz ele.

“Você presume equivocadamente que se fazer a citação de um nome, estaria fazendo campanha pra um ou outro candidato. E isso acabou criando uma dificuldade, então as pessoas foram realizar o ato fora”, avalia Roque. Universitários, militantes, trabalhadores e demais cidadãos bauruenses se reuniram em círculo na calçada, em frente à portaria da universidade.

Já os organizadores da palestra sobre o fascismo, decidiram continuar dentro do campus e realizar o evento sem citar nome de nenhum candidato. Na sala de aula, junto dos estudantes, compareceram professores da casa em apoio.

A direção

“É tão surreal que eu não acredito na situação”, desabafa Fernanda Henriques, vice-diretora da Faculdade de Arquitetura, Artes e Comunicação da Unesp, que foi a responsável por comunicar a posição da unidade aos organizadores dos eventos.

Professora do curso de Design na unidade, ela ficou sabendo que uma rádio tinha noticiado manifestações contra Bolsonaro dentro do campus. “Eu fiquei alardeada com tudo o que estava acontecendo. Cheguei lá, tinha um grupo de pessoas, falei para tomarem cuidado porque poderia aparecer qualquer tipo de gente, o Movimento Brasil Livre (MBL), pessoas opostas. E falei para não citar nome de candidato, que é crime eleitoral”.

Depois da notificação, a vice-diretora voltou para sua sala, e logo alguns dos organizadores bateram à porta. A conversa girou em torno de orientações para que se pudesse realizar a palestra contra o fascismo — o outro grupo, do debate pelos direitos democráticos, preferiu não negociar.

“Estão falando que é censura porque foram se reunir do lado de fora, mas eu disse apenas para tomar cuidado”, afirma Fernanda, sobre o post que repercutiu nas redes apontando o cerceamento do debate na Unesp Bauru. “Eu entendo que é uma oposição simbólica, só que por trás da instituição está uma pessoa que tem uma luta. Estou aqui para defender a permanência estudantil. Sou uma professora que defende a democracia”, finaliza.

O que disse a rádio

Às 15h45, a rádio Jovem Pan News Bauru já falava no assunto: o apresentador anuncia que seriam realizados eventos contra Jair Bolsonaro na universidade.

Por todo o Brasil, manifestações em universidades contra o fascismo foram canceladas; o argumento é de que serviriam como campanha para Fernando Haddad (PT), opositor de Jair Bolsonaro (PSL), constituindo um crime eleitoral (Foto: Lucas Mendes/JORNAL DOIS)

“Tava vendo essa matéria sobre um evento que vai ter na Unesp, é verdade mesmo?”, questiona um ouvinte ao vivo. “Meu filho estuda lá e tá sendo uma imposição. Aqueles alunos que se recusam, que se dizem contra, passam por boicote, por chacotinha, cê tá entendendo? É muito sério mesmo, se puder levar à frente”, completa.

“Já estou levando”, responde o apresentador. “Não pode, né? É um espaço público”. Em seguida, afirma ter tomado providências legais. “Olha só como são as coisas. Não dá. Eu tô informando sim a Justiça Eleitoral”.

A transmissão chegou na diretoria e também causou movimentação entre os estudantes que não estavam no campus naquele dia. Quando ficou sabendo, Jennyfer Carvalho se assustou pela lembrança de algo parecido que aconteceu durante um intercâmbio na Turquia.

“Todo mundo que falasse mal do governo era de alguma forma reprimido, e na época pensei ‘pelo menos no Brasil não tem isso’. Mas ver uma discussão sobre democracia ser aconselhada a não acontecer dentro da universidade me deixou um pouco assustada. Aonde nós estamos chegando?”, questiona.

O que diz a lei

A Declaração Universal de Direitos Humanos, em seu artigo 19, afirma que todo ser humano tem direito à liberdade de opinião e expressão. Isso inclui a liberdade de, sem interferência, ter opiniões e de procurar, receber e transmitir informações e ideias.

No Brasil liberdade de expressão é garantida pela Constituição Federal de 1988 em seu artigo 5º, no capítulo dos direitos e deveres individuais e coletivos, que trata dos direitos e garantias fundamentais.

Para Naiara Patricia dos Santos Neves, advogada da subseção Organização dos Advogados do Brasil (OAB)de Bauru, há um aparente conflito de normas no que diz respeito à liberdade de expressão em períodos eleitorais. “Quando ocorre restrição à manifestação política individual, no primeiro momento fica evidente uma limitação à garantia constitucional a liberdade de expressão, mas quando isso se dá em ambiente eleitoral, existe outro preceito constitucional que deve ser observado”.

O Código Eleitoral em seu artigo 377 diz que o serviço de qualquer organização mantida pelo poder público, inclusive prédio e dependências, não pode ser utilizado para beneficiar partido político. “Ainda que isso signifique restrição à liberdade de manifestação de determinados indivíduos”, pontua a advogada.

Bauru é sede do maior campus da UNESP: são 456,68 hectares de área total e cerca de 7 mil estudantes (Foto: Lucas Mendes/JORNAL DOIS)

Situações semelhantes aconteceram em universidades públicas de todo o país, com o cancelamento de atividades e apreensão de materiais do movimento estudantil por ordens judiciais. Em Bauru, a decisão não chegou a essa instância: partiu diretamente da diretoria da Unesp.

No Rio de Janeiro, a OAB se posicionou contra “decisões da Justiça Eleitoral que tentam censurar a liberdade de expressão de estudantes e professores” da faculdade de direito da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), que teve manifestações contra o fascismo impedidas pela polícia. “A manifestação livre, não alinhada a candidatos e partidos, não pode ser confundida com propaganda eleitoral”.

O Tribunal Superior Eleitoral se comprometeu a investigar eventuais excessos nas ocorrências, e ministros do Supremo Tribunal Federal se manifestaram em favor da liberdade nas instituições de ensino. “O Supremo Tribunal Federal, como guardião da Constituição Federal, sempre defendeu a autonomia e a independência das universidades brasileiras, bem como o exercício do livre pensar, da expressão e da manifestação pacífica”, disse o ministro Dias Toffoli, presidente do STF.

Representantes da reitoria, professores e membros das diretorias de diversas unidades da Unesp assinaram um manifesto em defesa da democracia, dos direitos humanos e da universidade. “Eu vi com muita simpatia a nota dos setores defendendo a democracia”, opina Roque Ferreira, membro da organização que realizou o debate do lado de fora da universidade em Bauru. “Agora a gente tem que traduzir o discurso para a prática”.

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