Evento promovido pelo Conselho Regional de Psicologia em Bauru discutiu o tema no último sábado (27)

(Arte: Nenê Surreal/Roda Terapêutica das Pretas)

Por Maria Esther Castedo


Ao chegar no consultório do psicólogo, uma mulher negra conta que participou de um processo seletivo, mas não conseguiu a vaga de emprego. Ao ser questionada qual era o motivo para isso ter acontecido, sua resposta é: racismo. Ela contou que todas as concorrentes eram brancas, se sentiu intimidada na entrevista e olharam “esquisito” para seu cabelo. A resposta do psicólogo: “imagina, não foi isso que aconteceu. Acho que você está com sentimento de perseguição”.

Essa é uma situação hipotética baseada nas histórias que Aline Nascimento Campos e Ester Maria Horta contaram no último sábado (27), no Conselho Regional de Psicologia (CRP) em Bauru. Elas são psicólogas e integram o grupo “Roda Terapêutica das Pretas”, onde ocorreram os relatos. Destinado ao atendimento de mulheres negras da periferia, o grupo surgiu em 2016 após demandas apresentadas por mulheres negras do movimento negro para serem atendidas por psicólogas negras.

A conversa aconteceu durante a palestra “Diálogos Acerca das Relações Raciais: O(s) Lugar(es) da Mulher Negra na Sociedade: Reflexões para Psicologia”. O objetivo era nítido: demonstrar o impacto que a vivência de uma mulher negra psicóloga tem ao atender uma paciente. “É essencial, no processo de transferência, da paciente se identificar com a psicóloga, pra ela observar que lá é um lugar onde ela pode comentar das dores, não vai ser julgada, hostilizada, diminuída ou ter a fala deslegitimada”, explicou Aline. O processo de transferência é quando o paciente projeta seus pensamentos e sentimentos.

Esse debate ainda é tímido no Brasil. A tentativa de reflexão sobre o racismo e o papel dos psicólogos para intervir no cenário de discriminação começou a ganhar força nos anos 90. Psicólogos(as) negros(as) agiram para instituir o debate público dentro do Sistema Conselhos de Psicologia (CFP), mas somente nos anos 2000 a temática foi incorporada pelo CFP. E como resultado foi organizada a campanha “Preconceito racial humilha, a humilhação social faz sofrer”.

A resolução foi feita em articulação com o Movimento Negro (Arte: Maria Esther Castedo/JORNAL DOIS) *o correto é nº 18/2002

Outro marco importante foi a publicação da resolução nº 18 de 2002 pelo CFP. Ela estabelece normas de atuação para os psicólogos em relação a preconceito e discriminação racial, e que conta com um Grupo de Trabalho no Sistema Conselhos de Psicologia, desde dezembro de 2012. Ambas ações foram importantes para que a própria Psicologia brasileira reconhecesse a problemática social grave do racismo e como ela causa sofrimento psíquico.

Histórico

Aline e Ester Maria comentaram a inexistência de autores negros ou discussão sobre as relações sociais durante a formação. “Na faculdade, você fica com a ideia de quem produz na psicologia são pessoas brancas. Até mesmo essa resolução de 2002, na época de formado, não foi falado, no máximo você estuda o código de ética e só”, contou Ester.

A questão é apoiada no histórico de omissão da psicologia brasileira. Ela produziu conhecimento que legitimou e até validou cientificamente estereótipos que reforçaram o racismo. Uma das figuras mais lembradas é Arthur Ramos, médico e um dos principais mentores da Escola Nina Rodrigues. Ele representou o pensamento psicanalítico na década de 1930 e disseminou a ideia de que boa parte dos negros trazidos para o Brasil eram atrasados do ponto de vista cultural.

Sua influência continuou ao ser nomeado chefe do serviço de ortofrenia e higiene mental do Rio de Janeiro. Essas áreas da medicina são especializadas no estudo e tratamento das deficiências mentais. Foi assim que o pensamento racista esteve presente na formação dos primeiro Serviços de Higiene Mental, assim como nos Centros de Orientação Infantil e Juvenil e nos Setores de Psicologia Clínica. Exemplos dessa legitimação do racismo, foi que entre os anos de 1930 e 1970, havia um pensamento baseado na ideia de “carência” e das crianças “problemas”.

É nos anos 2000, que o Movimento Negro consegue maior visibilidade para o recorte racial na psicologia. Sendo também nesse espaço que surgiu a necessidade pela criação do coletivo da Roda Terapêutica. Segundo Ester, “as pessoas negras em especial da militância, que vão sofrer também o racismo por estar ali lutando e a dor de estar lutando contra isso, sentem a necessidade de buscar terapia.”

Ainda é pouco

Para Aline, o tema mais trazido pelas mulheres na roda é o racismo estrutural presente principalmente no trabalho e na vida acadêmica. Nesta última, a própria escassez de produção científica acerca das relações raciais na psicologia criou uma insegurança para as psicólogas da roda. Ponto compartilhado na palestra por psicólogos e professores da área.

A Psicologia Social foi a que mais investigou temas raciais, como as origens do preconceito e suas formas de expressão, as consequências do preconceito e influências de teorias raciais no desenvolvimento da Psicologia. Entretanto, foi na roda que Aline e Ester conheceram essa bibliografia e se aproximaram da luta. Como efeito das últimas iniciativas do CFP, Ester apontou que “a transformação gera um incômodo, então a gente tá vendo mais psicólogos brancos se debruçando sobre isso. Mas ainda é pouco.”

Aline explica que o impacto da atuação de uma psicologia antirracista já pode ser exemplificada pelos trabalhos realizados na Roda. Em pouco tempo de atuação, ela analisou que “a contribuição da psicologia com recorte racial é essencial para levar para as mulheres o apoio para que ela tenha uma psique estruturada para conseguir resistir e lutar. Acho que é resistência”.

O Conselho Regional de Psicologia de São Paulo com subsede em Bauru organizou o evento com a intuição de trazer debates como esse para o interior do estado. (Foto: Maria Esther Castedo/JORNAL DOIS)

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