Cidades precisam ser pensadas para pessoas 

Para que sejam seguras para  todos e para que crianças possam pedalar sem medo; Rafael presente 

Publicado em 29 de outubro de 2021

Interatividade com o meio urbano proporcionada pela bicicleta ajuda crianças a desenvolverem vínculos com o território (Imagem: colagem sobre foto de Reprodução/Pixabay)
Por Erik Mulato, colunista do J2

Meses atrás li um estudo do Instituto de Políticas de Transporte e Desenvolvimento (ITDP) que me deixou impressionado com a quantidade de demandas que existem por melhorias nas estruturas da cidade, pela mobilidade a pé e bicicleta. O artigo do ITDP, escrito por Roberta Soares, apresenta uma leitura interessante e de cunho pedagógico: pode até parecer estranho, mas caminhar ou pedalar com uma criança na cidade é muito mais importante do que imaginamos. 

A cidade é um mega espaço sensorial para pequenos, que muitas vezes ficam confinados em casas ou apartamentos onde o espaço limitado não permite ter uma experiência sensorial ampla, uma vez que a totalidade do espaço já foi explorada. Aí cometemos um erro deixando-os em frente às telas. Esqueçam as telas! É preciso caminhar e também pedalar pela cidade, não importa a forma ativa de deslocamento: um como outro pode ser atraente, porque pode fortalecer os laços da criança com a cidade, cujo estímulo sensorial é atraído pela presença de elementos lúdicos, desenhos, pinturas, bancos e monumentos. 

Na matéria, Soares cita alguns pilares são citados para explicar o fortalecimento de vínculos da criança com o território, sendo um deles a interatividade: uma criança que espera o ônibus com seu cuidador pode interagir com o espaço, o momento de deslocamento pode ser de aprendizado, e isso, muitas vezes, nos passa despercebido. Me passou despercebido até ler a pesquisa. 

Passei por este experimento na prática, numa ocasião em que, me deslocando de bicicleta, aproveitei para levar minha filha até a casa da avó. No trajeto foram inúmeras paradas com diversas observações: recolhemos flores, folhas e pequenos gravetos, vimos aves e gatos sobre os muros, algo que eu já fazia como ciclista observando e sentindo a cidade. 

A baixa velocidade da bicicleta associada ao amplo campo de visão possibilita à criança observar o seu entorno e perceber o que há nele: aves, árvores, prédios, casas e os desenhos nos muros. Para o adulto que perdeu o encanto pode ser banal. Para crianças, é percepção, aprendizagem e aventura, ou seja, fora de casa há um mundo de coisas novas. 

Com isso, eu entendi: a bagunça do quarto dela não é bagunça e sim a reprodução do espaço que ela viu e sentiu, teve experiência sensorial. Partindo do princípio que a cidades tem que ser o espaço para pessoas, o exercício de caminhar e pedalar deve ser prioridade. Moramos em cidades que parecem desprezar as necessidades de locomoção humana. 

Não quero passar por ativista chato, mas busco entender que a situação de pedestres e ciclistas é difícil porque está dentro da lógica de que cidades não são pensadas para pessoas. E quero lembrar que caminhar é uma condição natural do ser humano! Mesmo que uma pessoa se desloque de carro para o trabalho, ela tem que caminhar até o automóvel.

Caminhar e pedalar nas cidades, sobretudo em municípios como Bauru, é um desafio: não temos estruturas suficientes que atendam às e aos ciclistas, que usam a bicicleta como meio de locomoção para trabalhar, estudar, fazer compras, etc., e as que existem demandam manutenção, isso quando não são ocupadas por automóveis. O mesmo vale para a caminhada e as calçadas. 

Quando falamos “cidades para crianças” significa mostrar o mundo aos pequenos, por meio de caminhadas e pedaladas. Perceber a cidade é algo lúdico, que chama a atenção. Quando falamos deste tema, é porque os municípios têm que ser seguros para primeira infância, e consequentemente serão seguros para idosos, e para todos. 

Uma das demandas mais urgentes dos ciclistas e pedestres é o “acalmamento” do trânsito, ou seja, a redução de velocidade dos carros, proporcional a cada tipo de via, possibilitando mais segurança a quem circula pelas margens das ruas. 

O que me motivou escrever sobre este tema? No último dia 11 de outubro o pequeno Rafael Pereira ganhou uma bicicleta. No dia seguinte, uma terça-feira, 12 de outubro, Dia das Crianças, feliz com o presente, foi ter a experiência de pedalar pelo seu bairro, quando, infelizmente, foi vítima de atropelamento. 

Para mim, como pai, esta notícia é triste e acende um alerta, de que as cidades são insensíveis às crianças ao não ser um espaço lúdico, onde árvores podem ser derrubadas por um automóvel em alta velocidade, e gatos que estavam em cima de muros podem ser atropelados nas ruas.

O Plano Nacional de Mobilidade Urbana, lei 12587 de 2012, é o norte para mudar essa realidade. Ela institui que os municípios brasileiros organizem e implantem meios de mobilidade ativa, criem estruturas seguras para pedestres e ciclistas, criem mecanismos de redução de velocidade e vias mais seguras.

No dia sete de outubro uma organização chamada “Cidade Ativa” fez um manifesto lamentando a falta de cidades mais humanas. O documento mostra como crianças e adolescentes estão reféns do “não”. “Não pode sair a rua é perigoso”. 

Até quando isto permanecera? Até quando os gestores eleitos para promover a mobilidade ativa continuarão indiferentes a esta questão? Não dá para ficar apenas discutindo o que já está previsto na legislação e nos planos diretores. As melhorias têm que ser implementadas, e é pra agora. 

Vamos ocupar as ruas! Viva as crianças! Pequeno Rafael presente.

*Erik Mulato é presidente da ONG SOS Cerrado e membro do coletivo Pedala Bauru. 
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