Big Brother Bauru: câmeras na rua aumentam a segurança?

Cidade passará a ser vigiada por 10 câmeras em pontos “estratégicos” na tentativa de combater a criminalidade e reduzir violência

Antes de virar nome de reality show da TV, “big brother” fazia referência ao “grande irmão” — personagem do livro ‘1984’ de George Orwell, que conta a história de uma sociedade em constante vigilância (Imagem: Dziga Vertov/Reprodução)

Por Lucas Mendes


Quem passar a pé no calçadão da Batista de Carvalho em direção à praça Rui Barbosa vai atravessar a rua e, quando estiver andando sobre o chão preto e branco das pedras portuguesas, entre os carrinhos de lanche da praça e debaixo da árvore Timburi, terá seus movimentos filmados por uma câmera Full HD PTZ de alta resolução, fixada em um poste de 5 metros de altura e com capacidade de gravação de até 60 horas.

Suas imagens percorrerão cerca de 2 km em uma rede de fibra óptica até o Copom (Centro de Operações da Polícia Militar) — onde são recebidas as ligações do 190 (emergência da PM) de Bauru e região — localizado na rua Aymorés, perto da Tilibra. Lá, as reproduções vão ser exibidas em 18 monitores de 55 polegadas, junto com as gravações de outras nove câmeras que serão instaladas pela cidade.

No mapa estão os dez locais onde serão inicialmente instaladas as câmeras de vigilância em Bauru

Equipadas com visão noturna por infravermelho, cada câmera vai gravar 24 horas por dia, com possibilidade de dar um zoom de 35 vezes. Os registros das imagens das dez câmeras da cidade vão ficar guardados por 60 dias. A previsão é de que o sistema deve começar a funcionar até o final do mês de abril.

Em nome da segurança

As dez câmeras fazem parte do projeto de videomonitoramento de Bauru. A medida é uma tendência nas políticas de segurança pública para combater a criminalidade. Consiste em um conjunto de equipamentos de monitoramento que permitem capturar e transmitir em tempo real o que acontece em determinado local.

“A tecnologia ajuda a polícia a otimizar os seus esforços, otimizar seu trabalho e ampliar sua capacidade de prevenção”, disse o vereador Benedito Meira (PSB), ex-comandante geral da Polícia Militar (PM) de São Paulo.

Em Bauru, o projeto de videomonitoramento virou realidade graças a um conjunto de esforços. Em 2014 a Câmara Municipal aprovou o projeto que trata do assunto, que virou a Lei nº 6.490. Ela permite ao município celebrar convênio com o Estado de São Paulo, para a instalação e manutenção de equipamentos de transmissão e recebimento de dados ou de videomonitoramento público.

No início de março o projeto foi detalhado em coletiva de imprensa realizada no Comando de Policiamento do Interior 4 da Polícia Militar (CPI 4). O valor total do projeto é R$1,36 milhão.

A vigilância será conduzida pela Polícia Militar, no próprio Copom. Caberá também à PM comprar os monitores que vão transmitir as imagens, chamados de “vídeo wall”.

Defensores do videomonitoramento apontam o combate ao crime e o uso para melhorar o trânsito (Foto: Lucas Mendes/JORNAL DOIS)

A Prefeitura de Bauru se encarregou de abrir licitação para comprar as dez câmeras num valor de R$350 mil, se comprometendo a pagar R$10 mil por mês para manter o link de dados. Outra parte do dinheiro veio da emenda parlamentar do deputado federal José Augusto Rosa, o Capitão Augusto (PR), no valor de R$300 mil.

“Bauru é uma das cidades menos violentas do estado”, diz o prefeito Clodoaldo Gazzetta (PSD). “Haja visto esses números fantásticos que a gente teve no início do ano, de passar mais de 90 dias sem ter um assassinato numa cidade de 400 mil habitantes”.

Na cidade, de acordo com dados da Secretaria de Segurança Pública (SSP), não houve homicídios em dezembro de 2017 e janeiro de 2018. O mês de fevereiro registrou uma morte por homicídio doloso.

Para Gazzetta, “isso é coisa de primeiro mundo”, porque “pressupõe que o processo de segurança preventiva e também o processo de segurança que a Polícia Militar faz está sendo eficiente”.

A cena

Pesquisadores a favor de mais integração tecnológica nas cidades defendem a instalação de câmeras no espaço público. Iniciativa que promove o uso de Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação para melhorar os serviços públicos, a Rede Cidade Digital cita os problemas da segurança e mobilidade urbana como alvos que as câmeras de monitoramento podem combater.

Profissionais ligados à segurança pública também defendem a medida. O deputado Capitão Augusto, um dos responsáveis por viabilizar o videomonitoramento em Bauru, entende que as câmeras “inibem a ação criminosa. Uma coisa é o marginal saber que aquela área não está sendo monitorada e outra coisa é ele saber que tem uma câmera que está monitorando a imagem”, explica o deputado. “É óbvio que inibe o cometimento de crimes, de furtos, de roubos, pichações, depredações e qualquer outro tipo de coisa. Isso aí já é um estudo realmente comprovado”, salienta.

Medidas parecidas são tomadas em diversas partes do país. Em 2017, o prefeito de São Paulo, João Dória (PSDB), anunciou o projeto “City Camera”, com a intenção de instalar dez mil novas câmeras de vigilância na cidade. Segundo o projeto também será possível ligar imagens de câmeras particulares na rede de monitoramento paulistana.

Fora da capital do estado essa política de segurança púbica já começou há um tempo. Praia Grande, no litoral sul, foi a pioneira na instalação do videomonitoramento. Com 310.024 habitantes, segundo a estimativa do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) em 2017, a cidade tem o sistema desde 2002. Lá começou a funcionar com 100 câmeras (10 vezes mais do que Bauru), passou por ampliação entre 2014 e 2015, e hoje a cidade possui 1.650 câmeras inteligentes espalhadas por todo território. Dá para acompanhar o que está acontecendo ao vivo pelo site: http://cameras.praiagrande.sp.gov.br/cameras/ .

(Arte: Lucas Mendes/JORNAL DOIS)

Outra cidade com sistema de vigilância é Itu, próxima a Sorocaba. O município tem 170.157 pessoas, de acordo com as estimativas do IBGE para 2017 e o sistema de monitoramento existe desde 2015, com 24 câmeras instaladas, a um custo de R$ 582 mil, verba que veio do Ministério da Justiça, mais R$ 110 mil do município. Em 2016 o sistema foi ampliado, passando a ter 41 pontos de monitoramento, com um investimento de 700 mil reais.

As duas cidades são menores que Bauru, mas têm características parecidas — economicamente o que as move é o setor de comércio e serviços e também apresentam índices elevados de desigualdade de trabalho e renda.

Segundo dados da SSP, Bauru conseguiu ao longo dos anos diminuir seus índices de violência. De maneira geral, percebe-se uma diminuição dos crimes em todos os cenários, o que dificulta a atribuição dos resultados ao sistema de monitoramento. O período de comparação é de 2014 a 2018 porque corresponde aos anos em que os sistema foi ampliado na Praia Grande, e implantado em Itu.

(Infográfico: Ana Carolina Moraes/ JORNAL DOIS)

Cidades Seguras

Não existe uma relação direta entre vigilância e segurança. Para se ter uma ideia, a cidade de São Paulo tem uma câmera para cada 8 habitantes, mas figura na posição 40 entre as cidades mais seguras do mundo.

A organização Coding Rights, ligada à defesa dos direitos humanos e de privacidade no mundo digital, fez um levantamento publicado no projeto Chupadados, cruzando dados com o índice de cidades seguras da revista britânica The Economist. No estudo, nenhuma das dez metrópoles mais seguras do mundo tem um grande número de dispositivos de vigilância comparados com a população.

Comparação entre as cidades mais vigiadas do mundo e as mais seguras. Câmeras na rua nem sempre se traduz em segurança para a população. (Infográfico: Chupadados/Reprodução)

Cidade negócio

“Infelizmente a cidade está sendo tratada como negócio, de uma forma pontual em que chega uma ideia e acham que aquilo resolve. Os órgãos de planejamento não aprofundam o debate, não têm visão sistêmica e orgânica de todas essas questões”, dispara José Xaides de Sampaio Alves, professor de Arquitetura e Urbanismo na Unesp de Bauru.

Xaides coloca que o planejamento urbano deve ser pensado de forma a diminuir as chances de crimes. A questão não seria só trazer pessoas para o centro da cidade e ocupá-lo, mas “desenhar e fazer leis que induzam a essa sensação de segurança”, aponta. Uma das saídas, segundo o professor, é utilizar os instrumentos do Estatuto das Cidades, que existem “para redefinir usos e funções urbanas, para ampliar uma sensação de segurança”.

Para o professor, a própria prefeitura está indo na contramão do que seria uma cidade segura, no projeto que cria novos corredores comerciais em ruas da cidade. “A tendência dessas vias é ter a expulsão de moradores e com isso a ampliação da falta de usos à noite, quando na verdade deveriam estar estimulando o oposto: a fixação de moradias ao invés da ideia de corredores aonde só tem o comércio ou serviço. Justamente por essa razão gera esses “monstros urbanos” onde as ideias como essa de videomonitoramento tentam atuar com se tivesse a capacidade isolada de resolver esse problema, e a gente sabe que não é por aí”.

Os “olhos da rua”

“Nós estamos com um olho eletrônico agora praticamente em toda cidade, ou nos pontos principais agora no início, o que não é possível com o pessoal da viatura. Então o impacto na prevenção é gigante. E na investigação ele auxilia. A solução [de crimes] deve aumentar 50%, porque todos os casos que ninguém viu, esse olho eletrônico está vendo e gravando”, afirmou o Coronel Airton Iosimo Martinez, comandante do Centro de Policiamento do Interior-4 (CPI-4).

Outros olhos, que não os eletrônicos, já foram pensados para as cidades. A jornalista e ativista americana Jane Jacobs publicou em 1961 o livro “Vida e Morte das Cidades Americanas” — um manifesto contra a suburbanização das cidades e uma crítica aos planejadores urbanos que elaboravam cidades padronizadas e monótonas, segundo ela. Para a jornalista, quanto maior a diversidade e a vida nas ruas das cidades, melhor será a experiência urbana.

Jacobs imaginava que, para se criar um espaço seguro, seriam necessários o que ela chamou de “Olhos das Ruas”, ou seja, aquela vigilância natural das pessoas que existe em ruas com movimento, preenchidas com comércios e prédios com janelas viradas para a calçada. Seria uma espécie de “intrincado balé na calçada”, somente possível com quarteirões curtos, que estimulassem o pedestre a sair mais a pé e que misturassem moradia, comércio e trabalho.

A ideia é compartilhada por Xaides, que defende ruas e bairros multiusos. “Imagine uma rua em que você possa ter uma padaria numa esquina, uma farmácia mais à frente, um bar ali por perto, e que você tivesse pessoas circulando ao dia e a noite, olhando e cuidando da vizinhança”, sugere.

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