Ativismo ou militância? Entenda a diferença

Parece a mesma coisa mas não é; o ativista balança e gira conforme o vento; é preciso construir a casa pela base, tijolo por tijolo, antes de fazer o telhado

Publicado em 25 de maeço de 2021

O tema está em alta e gera confusões. Ambos tem suas importâncias, mas são coisas diferentes (Arte por Henrique Barduchi em colaboração com o J2)
Por Arthur Castro, colunista do J2

Desde a sua origem movimentos de esquerda e de viés socialista se dedicaram a organizar as classes populares em torno de bases fortes, ou, em outras palavras, organizações com bom funcionamento.

O modo mais popular foi a estratégia sindicalista, na qual trabalhadoras e trabalhadores se associam entre si para resistir à exploração dos patrões. Os sindicatos, no passado, forneciam espaços de convívio coletivo, auxílios financeiros, redes de apoio mútuo e até bibliotecas, escolas e centros culturais. Pertencer a um sindicato era construir uma vida plena com seus colegas de trabalho.

Essa não era a única forma, contudo, de se organizar politicamente. Em muitos países, existiam associações camponesas, que mobilizavam famílias inteiras de regiões rurais por autonomia e independência, na resistência contra os grandes fazendeiros e os governos.

No Brasil, não podemos esquecer da brava resistência de quilombos e aldeias contra o colonialismo europeu. Eram construídos laços de solidariedade em comum entre os setores oprimidos, laços esses erguidos sobre um terreno firme (local de trabalho, local de moradia).

Militantes eram essas pessoas – socialistas, comunistas, anarquistas – que se dedicavam ativamente na construção dessas estruturas sociais, nesse poder paralelo que confrontava o poder dominante.

Militante, portanto, é quem constrói a luta social no dia a dia. Pode ser no sindicato, tentando organizar seus colegas de trabalho. Pode ser no movimento estudantil, tentando organizar seus colegas de estudo. Pode ser na associação de moradores do bairro, tentando organizar sua vizinhança. Pode ser nos movimentos sem terra, sem teto, indígena, quilombola.

Já o ativista não constrói a luta em um lugar, é aquela pessoa que fica “pulando” de assunto em assunto pela cidade, atirando para todo lado. Hoje é a greve dos carteiros, amanhã é uma ocupação sem teto, depois um protesto estudantil. Não há construção de redes de apoio, de movimentos organizados, nada. Isso não pode ser confundido com um sindicato, por exemplo, que declara apoio a outro sindicato ou à uma mobilização de povos tradicionais, participando dessas lutas e dando suporte. O ativismo simplesmente balança e gira conforme o vento.

Os tipos de ativistas

Existem três: primeiro, tem aquela pessoa que nunca militou, não sabe como começar, e tenta participar de algo se integrando em tudo que aparece. Muitas pessoas são assim, e muitos militantes começaram assim. São pessoas que precisam ser acolhidas pela militância organizada.

O segundo tipo de ativista é o que acredita no movimento “espontâneo”, “autônomo”, ou outros nomes similares. Essa pessoa acha que militância, organização e trabalho coletivo são besteiras, e que a saída é ficar agitando revolta em todo lugar. Para esses ativistas, a população está preparada para uma revolução, faltando um empurrãozinho, e então tudo vai acontecer naturalmente, pois no fundo o socialismo mora no coração das pessoas. Eles querem ser o isqueiro que vai iniciar o incêndio. Na prática, não é isso que ocorre: a história nos mostra que o grupo mais organizado e mais preparado materialmente assume o controle das revoltas populares desorganizadas e as usa como escadas para o poder. Isso não impede o autonomista/espontaneísta de continuar tentando criar “sua revolução”.

Por fim, tem o ativista que quer se eleger. Participa de tudo o que aparece porque seu objetivo é se tornar conhecido para depois se candidatar nas eleições. Não há intenção de construir movimentos organizados, apenas a própria imagem. Um político eleito por movimentos sociais organizados já é um risco a esses movimentos, pois leva à burocratização, ao atrelamento das organizações populares às estruturas governamentais. Um político eleito por ativismo não presta contas a ninguém, a nenhuma base social, e acaba muito mais rapidamente sendo arrastado pelo sistema.

Não adianta só ficar agitando o refrigerante para depois perder o gás. É preciso começar a construir a casa pela base, tijolo por tijolo, antes de fazer o telhado.

Na era pós-moderna

Em meio à Guerra Fria entre Estados Unidos e União Soviética (1947-1991), muitas pessoas de esquerda tiveram uma desilusão com as experiências socialistas do marxismo-leninismo.

O stalinismo soviético, o maoísmo chinês, o polpotismo cambojano e outros regimes fizeram com que muitos progressistas se desanimassem com a proposta de revolução. Lembremos que além de hierarquia e de um governo burocrático, muitos desses países mantiveram dominações étnico-raciais, imperialistas e patriarcais (com prisões de LGBT+).

Alguns intelectuais franceses apresentaram como alternativa o “pós-estruturalismo” ou “pós-modernismo”. Para eles, era inútil tentar construir um socialismo revolucionário, pois acabaria por terminar em campos de concentração. Não haveria, então, o que fazer. No máximo, uma resistência cultural e individual.

Nessa época, o ativismo existia como minoria, inclusive entre alguns subgrupos socialistas. Porém, o movimento pós-moderno cresce nos anos 1980 e 1990, principalmente nas classes médias, e torna as práticas ativistas cada vez mais presentes no campo da esquerda.

Essa leitura culturalista ganhou força em diversas universidades, entre professores e estudantes, fortalecendo uma atuação pessoal e particular, por assim dizer. Murray Bookchin, importante anarquista dos Estados Unidos, e bell hooks, famosa feminista negra, vão criticar quem substituía a militância clássica por um ativismo de “estilo de vida”, ou seja, uma “militância” individualista na qual bastava a pessoa se vestir diferente ou adotar certos gostos musicais para dizer estar lutando.

Na era digital

Se a militância clássica já vinha enfraquecendo, a situação piora com o aparecimento das redes sociais. Facebook e Twitter permitem o “ativismo virtual”, na qual basta a pessoa “lacrar” na internet para se dizer militante. A “militância” passa a ser definida por visualizações, curtidas e compartilhamentos, e não por poder concreto e organizado.

Caindo como uma luva para o capitalismo, empresas e bancos passam a cada vez mais comercializar e lucrar com símbolos de falso radicalismo, de falsa inclusão, de falsa representatividade. A juventude da última década busca mudar o mundo do conforto de sua casa.

Em partes, a velha esquerda tem sua parcela de culpa. Por motivos variados, não foram capazes de se adaptar, de se manter ativos e presentes. No Brasil, as antigas lideranças sindicais, estudantis e comunitárias se burocratizaram ao compor o governo petista, se afastando da população em troca de cargos. Nesse vazio, jovens não encontraram por onde começar sua militância e foram atraídos para a fluidez das redes sociais.

A direita, entretanto, não abandonou as bases populares, os territórios e as organizações de base. Por meio de currais eleitorais de políticos assistencialistas, de igrejas e do crime organizado, grupos conservadores se fizeram presentes organizando a juventude, a população que trabalha e as pessoas mais pobres. O apoio mútuo e a rede de proteção antes garantidas pelos movimentos sociais, hoje são oferecidos pela Igreja Universal e pelas milícias cariocas.

Enquanto a juventude de hoje vai da revolta virtual ao ato de rua e depois para a revolta virtual de novo, quem está na presidência é Jair Bolsonaro (Sem Partido). E ainda que Haddad (PT) ou Ciro (PDT) estivessem no governo, o que poderiam fazer contra os territórios organizados e estabelecidos pelo agronegócio, pelas igrejas, pelas milícias e pelo narcotráfico, mantidos e financiados pelo empresariado?

Por que ser militante?

Se os movimentos populares e as organizações de esquerda querem se tornar uma força importante no Brasil, é hora de romper com a cultura ativista das redes sociais e do pensamento pós-moderno. É preciso voltar ao trabalho de base, à organização de baixo para cima.

Quer ser militante? Então seja na prática, fortalecendo as lutas populares, pois só assim podemos realmente mudar o mundo.

Caso contrário, o destino da esquerda vai ser chamar de militância a torcida do Big Brother e a polêmica de Twitter, vendo “cancelamentos” e “empoderamentos” individuais da classe média substituir a libertação de milhões da classe trabalhadora, incluindo mulheres, pessoas não brancas e LGBT+.

As colunas são um espaço de opinião. Posições e argumentos expressos neste espaço não necessariamente refletem o ponto de vista do Jornal Dois.

Acredita no nosso trabalho?         
Precisamos do seu apoio para seguir firme.    
Contribua  a partir de 10 reais por mês. 

Comments

  1. I want to express my appreciation to this writer just for rescuing me from such a setting. Right after researching throughout the internet and getting techniques which are not pleasant, I assumed my life was over. Living without the solutions to the difficulties you’ve fixed by means of the article is a crucial case, and those which could have adversely damaged my entire career if I hadn’t encountered your blog post. Your actual competence and kindness in touching a lot of things was priceless. I’m not sure what I would have done if I had not discovered such a stuff like this. I am able to now look forward to my future. Thanks a lot very much for the high quality and amazing guide. I won’t be reluctant to suggest the sites to any individual who needs to have counselling on this problem.

  2. Needed to compose you a very small note to be able to give thanks again on your magnificent strategies you’ve documented at this time. It was so open-handed with you in giving unhampered what most people could have made available for an e book to help make some cash for themselves, and in particular given that you could possibly have tried it in the event you decided. These advice likewise served as a good way to comprehend other people online have similar dream much like my own to learn more and more pertaining to this problem. I’m sure there are many more enjoyable times ahead for those who looked at your blog post.

  3. I wanted to make a remark in order to appreciate you for those precious techniques you are giving out on this website. My considerable internet search has at the end of the day been compensated with sensible strategies to go over with my family. I ‘d mention that most of us visitors actually are undeniably endowed to live in a fantastic network with very many special professionals with very beneficial concepts. I feel very much grateful to have used your entire site and look forward to really more cool moments reading here. Thanks once more for a lot of things.

  4. I actually wanted to develop a simple word in order to appreciate you for these unique ways you are giving out here. My long internet search has now been paid with beneficial content to share with my neighbours. I would say that most of us readers are undoubtedly blessed to exist in a useful website with many brilliant individuals with good secrets. I feel truly lucky to have come across the website and look forward to some more fun minutes reading here. Thank you again for all the details.

  5. Thank you for each of your hard work on this website. My daughter loves doing internet research and it is easy to see why. We hear all relating to the compelling means you deliver effective guidance on the web site and even encourage participation from others on that matter plus our favorite child is actually understanding a whole lot. Take advantage of the rest of the new year. You have been carrying out a fantastic job.

  6. Thanks a lot for providing individuals with such a splendid possiblity to read from this web site. It is always very pleasing and as well , packed with a lot of fun for me and my office colleagues to search your blog the equivalent of thrice per week to find out the newest issues you have. And lastly, I’m so certainly fulfilled with all the perfect opinions you give. Certain two areas in this article are truly the most beneficial we have had.

  7. I wish to show my appreciation to the writer for rescuing me from such a setting. Because of researching throughout the online world and finding opinions which were not productive, I thought my entire life was gone. Living devoid of the solutions to the issues you have solved as a result of your entire website is a crucial case, as well as the ones which could have adversely affected my career if I hadn’t encountered your blog post. Your knowledge and kindness in playing with a lot of things was tremendous. I’m not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t come upon such a subject like this. It’s possible to at this point look forward to my future. Thanks for your time so much for the high quality and effective help. I won’t be reluctant to refer the sites to anyone who ought to have guidelines on this topic.

  8. I must express some appreciation to you just for bailing me out of such a situation. Just after looking throughout the the net and obtaining techniques that were not pleasant, I figured my life was over. Living minus the solutions to the problems you’ve resolved all through the guideline is a crucial case, as well as those that might have in a negative way affected my career if I hadn’t encountered your website. That mastery and kindness in controlling every part was important. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t discovered such a stuff like this. I’m able to at this time relish my future. Thank you so much for your professional and sensible guide. I will not be reluctant to endorse your web page to any person who requires recommendations about this matter.

  9. I actually wanted to construct a quick note to be able to thank you for these unique tips and hints you are sharing at this site. My incredibly long internet research has finally been rewarded with awesome points to write about with my pals. I would believe that many of us visitors are definitely fortunate to be in a fabulous network with so many outstanding people with very beneficial basics. I feel pretty grateful to have seen the website page and look forward to so many more awesome moments reading here. Thanks again for a lot of things.

  10. I as well as my friends were found to be reviewing the nice tips found on the blog then the sudden got a terrible feeling I had not thanked the blog owner for them. Most of the women were for this reason happy to study them and have now undoubtedly been using those things. Appreciate your simply being considerably kind and then for opting for such notable information millions of individuals are really eager to be informed on. My personal honest apologies for not expressing gratitude to sooner.

  11. I precisely wanted to say thanks once more. I’m not certain what I might have gone through in the absence of these methods shown by you over my area of interest. It has been a real troublesome issue in my view, nevertheless noticing a skilled tactic you handled that made me to weep with happiness. I am thankful for the assistance and believe you recognize what an amazing job you were carrying out educating others by way of your blog. Most likely you’ve never encountered all of us.

  12. I have to express appreciation to this writer just for rescuing me from this particular situation. Just after looking throughout the search engines and meeting views that were not beneficial, I believed my life was well over. Being alive minus the solutions to the difficulties you’ve fixed through your main write-up is a crucial case, as well as ones that would have adversely affected my career if I hadn’t encountered your blog. Your personal training and kindness in taking care of a lot of things was very helpful. I’m not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t encountered such a thing like this. It’s possible to at this moment look ahead to my future. Thanks a lot very much for this specialized and result oriented guide. I will not be reluctant to endorse your blog to any individual who should have guidance about this situation.

  13. I want to point out my respect for your kindness in support of visitors who really need help with this particular concern. Your special commitment to getting the message along came to be extraordinarily valuable and has enabled those just like me to attain their pursuits. Your amazing invaluable recommendations indicates this much to me and even further to my mates. Best wishes; from all of us.

  14. My spouse and i got very fulfilled that Raymond managed to do his studies using the ideas he made through your web pages. It’s not at all simplistic to simply possibly be freely giving hints which usually many people may have been trying to sell. Therefore we figure out we need the website owner to be grateful to for that. All of the explanations you have made, the straightforward blog navigation, the relationships your site help foster – it’s everything extraordinary, and it is aiding our son and us consider that this subject is entertaining, and that’s really pressing. Thanks for the whole thing!

  15. I must point out my passion for your generosity giving support to people who absolutely need guidance on the area of interest. Your real commitment to getting the message around became remarkably insightful and has in every case empowered people much like me to arrive at their objectives. Your personal important key points entails a whole lot to me and additionally to my office workers. Thanks a lot; from each one of us.

  16. I in addition to my friends came going through the good helpful tips on your web site then the sudden developed an awful suspicion I never expressed respect to the site owner for those secrets. The young boys came totally warmed to learn them and have now extremely been loving them. Thanks for genuinely really helpful and then for figuring out this form of excellent resources most people are really wanting to learn about. My personal sincere regret for not expressing gratitude to sooner.

  17. I just wanted to construct a simple message to appreciate you for all the superb secrets you are sharing here. My rather long internet investigation has at the end been compensated with really good concept to go over with my great friends. I ‘d assume that many of us readers are very lucky to live in a notable community with very many lovely individuals with valuable plans. I feel extremely happy to have seen your entire web site and look forward to some more enjoyable times reading here. Thanks once more for all the details.

  18. I have to express some appreciation to the writer for rescuing me from this particular instance. As a result of looking out throughout the search engines and getting proposals which are not helpful, I figured my entire life was gone. Existing devoid of the approaches to the difficulties you have resolved by way of your review is a crucial case, as well as the ones which may have in a negative way damaged my entire career if I hadn’t discovered the blog. Your know-how and kindness in playing with all the details was useful. I’m not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t come upon such a stuff like this. I can also at this moment look forward to my future. Thanks a lot so much for the skilled and results-oriented help. I won’t think twice to recommend the blog to anyone who desires recommendations on this problem.

  19. A lot of thanks for every one of your efforts on this site. My mum really likes carrying out investigations and it is easy to see why. All of us know all of the powerful mode you offer sensible guidelines by means of the website and encourage participation from visitors on the article so our own simple princess is without question discovering a lot. Take pleasure in the rest of the new year. You’re the one carrying out a really great job.

  20. Needed to compose you a tiny remark so as to thank you so much once again on the beautiful advice you’ve shown on this website. This has been certainly wonderfully generous with people like you to deliver publicly all that numerous people would’ve offered for sale for an e-book in order to make some dough on their own, primarily considering the fact that you might well have tried it in case you wanted. These concepts as well worked to become great way to fully grasp the rest have a similar dream just like my own to find out many more in regard to this problem. I know there are millions of more fun occasions up front for people who read your site.

  21. Needed to post you one little word to finally thank you again over the breathtaking knowledge you have provided on this page. It’s so wonderfully generous with people like you to allow without restraint all a number of people might have offered as an e-book in making some dough for their own end, certainly since you could have tried it if you ever decided. The concepts as well served as a great way to fully grasp that someone else have a similar dreams just as my personal own to figure out more and more regarding this issue. Certainly there are millions of more pleasant instances up front for individuals who read your blog post.

  22. I am commenting to let you understand what a incredible discovery my friend’s child had using your site. She came to understand lots of things, not to mention how it is like to have an awesome teaching mindset to have many more easily know a number of complex topics. You really did more than my expected results. Many thanks for showing the powerful, trusted, educational and in addition unique tips about the topic to Evelyn.

  23. My husband and i ended up being absolutely comfortable Emmanuel managed to finish off his preliminary research while using the precious recommendations he discovered through the weblog. It is now and again perplexing to just happen to be handing out helpful hints which usually a number of people might have been making money from. And we fully understand we now have you to give thanks to for this. Those explanations you’ve made, the straightforward blog menu, the friendships you will help foster – it’s got all superb, and it is helping our son in addition to us understand the topic is awesome, and that is rather serious. Many thanks for all the pieces!

  24. Thank you a lot for giving everyone a very brilliant opportunity to read articles and blog posts from this site. It’s usually very brilliant plus packed with a great time for me and my office friends to visit your website a minimum of thrice a week to study the new secrets you have. And definitely, I am certainly fulfilled with your superb creative ideas you give. Some 1 facts in this post are undoubtedly the most efficient we have ever had.

  25. I together with my pals ended up checking the good points from your web page then all of a sudden came up with a horrible suspicion I never thanked the site owner for them. All the young boys happened to be as a consequence warmed to see all of them and have absolutely been loving these things. We appreciate you getting simply thoughtful and then for deciding upon this kind of magnificent tips millions of individuals are really desirous to be aware of. My very own sincere regret for not expressing gratitude to you earlier.

  26. Thank you a lot for giving everyone an extraordinarily breathtaking opportunity to read from this website. It is usually very ideal plus stuffed with fun for me and my office mates to visit your site on the least 3 times every week to find out the fresh items you have. And indeed, I am just actually fulfilled concerning the special guidelines you give. Selected 3 ideas on this page are basically the most effective we have had.

  27. I would like to express thanks to this writer for bailing me out of this scenario. Right after searching throughout the world wide web and coming across tips which are not powerful, I believed my entire life was done. Being alive without the presence of answers to the problems you’ve fixed by way of your main guideline is a critical case, and the kind which may have adversely damaged my career if I hadn’t encountered your web page. Your primary mastery and kindness in maneuvering almost everything was crucial. I am not sure what I would’ve done if I had not discovered such a thing like this. It’s possible to at this time relish my future. Thank you so much for the skilled and results-oriented guide. I won’t hesitate to refer your web sites to any individual who will need direction on this situation.

  28. I would like to voice my admiration for your generosity for persons who require guidance on that idea. Your personal dedication to getting the solution all through has been wonderfully practical and have in most cases permitted women much like me to reach their ambitions. Your own informative help can mean a whole lot to me and much more to my office workers. Warm regards; from each one of us.

  29. I simply desired to thank you so much all over again. I am not sure what I might have gone through in the absence of the type of ideas discussed by you directly on such field. It absolutely was a fearsome scenario for me, however , viewing the expert fashion you dealt with that forced me to weep for fulfillment. I am happier for the service and hope you find out what an amazing job you are always providing teaching some other people through your webblog. I know that you haven’t met all of us.

  30. Thank you for your whole efforts on this web page. My mum really likes making time for investigation and it is simple to grasp why. Most people know all concerning the lively tactic you render both interesting and useful strategies via your blog and cause participation from some other people about this situation so our simple princess is undoubtedly understanding a great deal. Have fun with the remaining portion of the new year. You’re the one conducting a very good job.

  31. My spouse and i felt comfortable that Jordan could deal with his inquiry using the ideas he acquired through your weblog. It’s not at all simplistic to simply possibly be releasing guides that many some other people could have been making money from. And we also do know we now have the writer to be grateful to for this. The explanations you made, the straightforward web site menu, the relationships your site assist to engender – it is many astonishing, and it’s making our son in addition to us understand this theme is exciting, and that is really indispensable. Thank you for the whole lot!

Deixe um comentário

O seu endereço de e-mail não será publicado.