A necessidade do trabalho de base para a Esquerda

Muito se discute no campo progresista (de esquerda) sobre o chamado “trabalho de base”, mas pouco se aprofunda sobre o que ele é ou como deve ser feito

Por Arthur Castro, colunista do JORNAL DOIS

Nesse meu texto, vou apresentar a minha visão à respeito, com base nas discussões e aprendizados realizados dentro da esquerda libertária.

Em primeiro lugar, o chamado “trabalho de base” seria uma ação política na qual MILITANTES buscam construir movimentos sociais através da organização das classes populares. Por que? Bom, isso respondo com outra pergunta, qual o objetivo das forças de esquerda? A luta por igualdade social. E a melhor forma de se conquistar isso é através do empoderamento dos setores oprimidos, excluídos e explorados.

Quando falamos em militantes, nos referimos a pessoas que, com base em uma ideologia ou posição política de esquerda, busca lutar pela vitória de causas sociais. Não raro, muitos são pessoas vindas da classe média. Há, é claro, militantes vindos das classes baixas. No entanto, temos que concordar que pela derrota que as ideias de esquerda vem sofrendo, nossos ideais socialistas não são fortes entre a maior parte da população. Então é urgente que isso seja corrigido através da atuação junto a sociedade.

Se queremos dar forças aos trabalhadores contra os patrões, precisa-se fortalecer os sindicatos. Se queremos vencer a tirania do latifúndio e do agronegócio, isso se dá pela construção de movimentos do campo, seja de pequenos agricultores, de sem terras, de indígenas, de quilombolas ou mesmo assalariados rurais. Podemos aplicar a mesma lógica nas construções de movimentos estudantis (colegial e universitário), bem como de orientação comunitária e urbana (por moradia, transporte, dentre outros).

É com organização dos de baixo que se constrói resistência e se prepara o caminho para um mundo novo. Esse deve ser o princípio orientador do trabalho de base. Não há avanço se agirmos isolados, sozinhos, esperando que uma pequena ação por si só mudará o mundo.

Pequenas ações individuais mudam o mundo quando se transformam em ações coletivas, através da participação em organizações maiores. Um trabalhador sozinho não derrota seu patrão, mas um sindicato o faz.

Se a esquerda não faz, a direita o faz

Durante os anos 80 e 90, houve um crescimento nas mobilizações populares no Brasil. Surgiu com o Partidos dos Trabalhadores (PT) uma série de organizações de base social: a CUT no campo sindical, o MST na luta por terra, o MTST buscando moradia, dentre outros.

No entanto, nos anos 2000, quando Lula se torna presidente, ocorre um abandono das ações junto ao povo. A maior parte da esquerda – ligada ao petismo – esquece da importância de estar próxima da classe trabalhadora e se rende à burocratização.

Os sindicatos, com exceções, deixam de representar quem trabalha. A UNE – grande organização estudantil – se torna uma fachada para a estrutura de poder do PCdoB e sua juventude, a UJS. Esse vácuo de poder se torna um espaço a ser ocupado pela direita – em especial as igrejas neopentecostais.

Enquanto a maior parte da esquerda se afastou da população, os conservadores religiosos se aproximaram, construindo importantes laços entre as camadas mais pobres. O suficiente para garantir a vitória de Jair Bolsonaro em 2018.

O neopentecostalismo – as igrejas evangélicas – passaram a fazer o que as organizações socialistas deixaram. Isso, é claro, na América Latina. Em outras regiões do mundo, a direita toma formas diferentes. Na Europa, o nacionalismo ganha espaço entre os trabalhadores, prometendo protegê-los do liberalismo, a ponto de termos uma organização fascista – Casa Pound – fazendo atuação junto a ocupações sem teto. No Oriente Médio, o fundamentalismo islâmico cresce entre miseráveis espalhados nas periferias.

Militância NÃO É ativismo

A militância em trabalho de base não deve se confundir com o chamado ativismo. Na militância, você constrói em um espaço, ajudando a estruturar bases sociais, organismos de decisão das classes populares, permitindo a democratização das lutas. Se inicia um espaço de protagonismo dos oprimidos, e as sementes de um mundo novo.

Aqui temos a ação de estudantes organizados em grêmios ou diretórios acadêmicos, ou mesmo trabalhadores sindicalizados. Isso não impede também que pessoas de fora desses espaços sejam militantes: há inúmeros voluntários no MST – que mesmo não sendo sem terras- se somam as lutas, ajudando no que for possível. Também existem movimentos comunitários que surgem da aliança de moradores locais com apoiadores de fora.

O ativismo, por outro lado, surge quando um grupo de pessoas acredita que pode, isoladamente, lutar por grandes causas em nome da sociedade. Comum entre pessoas de classe média, não há construção de base de movimentos populares, nem de organismos de classe. Há o ativista – que se vê como um herói – se colocando como o representante do povo frente a algum problema. O melhor exemplo que temos aqui são as ONGs internacionais, nas quais seus membros escolhem um problema social para combaterem, quase sempre como os salvadores que vem em socorro dos fracos e oprimidos.

É comum ativistas pularem de determinadas lutas para outras lutas, sempre escolhendo o “assunto do momento” para ganhar destaque – e isso é bem diferente de se solidarizar com outras pautas.

Se utilizarmos a questão comunitária, darei exemplos de cada. O ativista se insere na periferia como uma ONG: fornece assistencialismo, se oferece para representar a população local diante do poder público. O militante, fazendo um trabalho diário na região, busca dar sua contribuição para que surjam organizações de base fortes, seja fortalecendo a associação de moradores, seja na construção de um movimento por moradia, que buscará garantir a participação popular.

Nem obreirismo, nem vanguardismo

Quando se inicia uma militância em um espaço, é importante se evitar dois erros: o obreirismo e o vanguardismo.

O obreirismo surge de uma idealização da classe trabalhadora. Acredita-se que a população pobre em geral – por ser explorada e oprimida – possui dentro de si toda a ética socialista por justiça social. Talvez alguns defensores do obreirismo critiquem meu texto, justamente alegando que é “autoritário” por propor trabalho de base, pois o povo já possui o socialismo em seus corações. Mas nós vivemos em uma sociedade capitalista: o pensamento burguês é forte entre a maior parte das pessoas, de todas as classes.

Se queremos substituir a mentalidade liberal ou conservadora por uma mentalidade progressista e de esquerda, precisamos colocar isso em discussão. Se concordamos que o neopentecostalismo é forte na periferia, isso significa que um discurso LGBTfóbico e a favor de empreendedorismo liberal também é. Os trabalhadores não são mais morais ou éticos do que qualquer um de nós – há progressistas e conservadores, há disputa.

Se não devemos idealizar positivamente a maior parte da população não-militante, não devemos pensar que os trabalhadores são ignorantes ou infantis a ponto de precisar serem “guiados”. É comum em certos grupos de esquerda se acharem os portadores da verdade e tentarem impor sua teoria idealizada sobre o mundo real, e ficarem assustados quando as coisas não dão certo!

O contato do militante de esquerda e do não-militante é um aprendizado mútuo. Se uma organização de esquerda se insere em um assentamento sem terra ou uma ocupação de moradia, não deve chegar lá achando que vai esclarecer os ignorantes, nem estar disposta a dizer amém a qualquer coisa: é preciso conversar, e não se conversa criando uma hierarquia entre as partes.

 

Democracia direta contra o aparelhamento

Se o objetivo do trabalho de base é construir organizações populares que garantam voz à classe, é preciso que exista democracia.

Alguns grupos socialistas acreditam que o povo é incapaz de guiar a si mesmo: as massas seriam ignorantes, e só uma direção esclarecida pode liderar a mudança. Essas forças vanguardistas acreditam que um único partido ou força política deve comandar os movimentos populares, e buscam sempre que possível ocupar cargos de liderança.

A história nos mostra como isso nunca termina bem. O PT manteve forte controle sobre a CUT e a UNE, e o resultado é o que vemos hoje. Se queremos movimentos sociais fortes e atuantes, devemos buscar participação ampla e plural, com cargos rotativos, e decisões tomadas por assembleias.

Quando defendemos democracia direta defendemos com ela organização: secretarias e comissões, delegações, tudo isso continuaria existindo. Mas não haveriam chefes eleitos que, com poderes superiores aos demais, possam impor suas visões pessoais à maioria dos participantes. Uma construção coletiva exige atuação coletiva.

Lutar, Criar, Poder Popular

É isso que entendo como trabalho de base, e o que defendo. Os movimentos sociais construídos precisam ser abertos para o máximo de pessoas possível: eles são organizações de classe, não de ideologia.

Não se pergunta para um trabalhador em quem ele votou para que este tenha o direito de ser sindicalizado. Ele é sindicalizado por ser trabalhador.

Para que uma organização popular seja forte, ela não pode ser exclusiva de uma posição política. É claro, não precisamos ser tolerantes com ideologias de direita em nosso próprio território, mas no campo da esquerda devemos ser o mais amplo possível.

Socialdemocratas, marxistas, anarquistas, trabalhistas, socialistas em geral e até nacionalistas de esquerda devem encontrar espaço para atuar nos movimentos populares. Isso não significa unir a todo custo ou esconder as divergências, mas que esses debates ocorram no seio de uma classe trabalhadora unida e organizada.


As colunas são um espaço de opinião. As posições e argumentos expressas neste espaço não necessariamente refletem o ponto de vista do JORNAL DOIS.

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